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Theme 2: Industry and Agriculture 1917-1985
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9 months ago
Theme 3: Control of the people 1917-1985
Decree on Land- Land estates belonging to the church or to aristocratic land owners were broken up and given to the peasants. This was very popular among the peasants.
Lenin introduces state capitalism- State capitalism was based on the nationalisation of industry. Nationalisation ended capitalism by taking industry away from middle- class owners. It was very unpopular as people felt life was still the same as before the revolution.
Lenin introduces War Communism- Emergency measures introduced to ensure communist victory in the civil war. It included grain requisition and rationing, labour discipline and the abolistion of the market.
The Soviet Union experience the 'scissors crisis'- Agriculture recovered quickly leading to a drop in agriculture price, but industry kept growing and industrial prices grew. This meant farmers couldn't afford industrial goods and had no incentive to keep producing grain.
Stalin introduces emergancy measures ending the NEP- Lenin ordered the Cheka to requisition grain to feed the workers and sell overseas to end the Kulak grain strike. This effectively ended NEP.
Stalin introduces the first 5 year plan- The primary aim was to industrialise the USSR and catch up with the west. He also aimed to eliminate the inefficiencies of NEP.The government controlled production and set high targets. Command economy.
Stalin orders compulsory collectivisation of Soviet Farms- Caused by the failure of NEP, communist ideology and the leadership struggle. SMall farms were merged into large farms of anything between 20 and 150 families.
Beginning of the great famine- Mainly in Ukraine. Farmers had not been meeting their targets and resistance for collectivisation had been high here. Stalin punished them by seizing their grain and livestock.
German invasion leads to Soviet entry into the Second World War
Introduction of the forth 5 year plan- Aimed to reconstruct the country after the devestation of WW2. Led to high industrial growth and continued military spending.
Khrushchev introduces the Virgin Lands scheme- Hoped to increase agricultural production by farming unfarmed lands in Kazakhstan, Caucus and Siberia
Khrushchev launches the sovnarkhoz reforms- The Sovnarkhoz Reform of 1957 was designed by Khrushchev to improve efficiency in the Soviet economic system by decentralizing economic decision making from all-Union branch ministries in Moscow to the governments of the individual republics and regional economic councils.
Khrushchev launches the Corn Campaign- Encouraged farmers in Ukraine to grow maize to shift wheat production to newly created virgin farms to feed animals and produced more meat. Based on the US farms but ultimately failed due to inferiorities compared to the USA.
Khrushchev launches the Seven-Year Plan- Designed to boost agricultural production and the production of consumer goods by investing in light industry. He hoped this would inprove living standards.
Khrushchev divides the party between industry and agriculture- Deeply unpopular and part of Khrushchev's continual economic reorganization and introduction of reforms which were often counter productive or did not have time to work.
'Kosygin reforms' are introduced and then scrapped in August- Kosygin advocated reforms that were designed to cut investment in the most inefficient collective farms and divert the money to light industry. He also proposed giving power to factory managers and success by profit. A rebellion in Czechoslovakia discredited Kosygin's program and so it was scrapped in August.
Andropov initiates anti-corruption campaign- Andropov investigate senior party officials and industrial workers who were using Soviet resources to make themselves rich.
Lenin introduces the New Economic Policy- Introduced to retain political power, to revive the economy and to build socialism. IT includeda free amrket for agricultural production, denationalising small facotries, and reintroducing money.
World War I
World War II
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