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Hemoglobin estimation, red and white blood cell counts, malaria parasite identification, simple urinalysis, examination of sputum for tuberculosis.
Blood culture, agglutination test for typhoid fever, isolation of Klebs-Loffler bacillus with virulence tests in diphtheria, lumbar puncture, examination of cerebrospinal f1uid in suspected meningitis, amino aciduria in liver disease.
Isolation of typhoid bacilli from urine and the clotting time in hemophilia.
Tissue examination for spirochetes in syphilitic lesions, the Wassermann test, osmotic fragility tests, a crude form of the glucose tolerance test.
Blood counts and examination of stained smears, agglutination reactions, the Wassermann test, parasitology, blood cultures, spectroscopic examination, visual detection of bilirubinemia, Gmelin tests, Garrod technique for uric acid, alkalinity of blood, bacteriology (basic staining and culture methods in use today), urinalysis (pus, red blood cells, albumin, sugar), test meals in use, fecal examinations for fat and stercobilin, histology (frozen section and paraffin embedding).
KMG Seigbahn develops x-ray spectroscopy
FW Aston develops the mass spectrograph
First clinical laboratory method for serum phosphorus is established; the use of venipuncture for diagnostic testing becomes widespread
First clinical laboratory method for serum magnesium is introduced
Arne Tiselius develops moving boundary electrophoresis of proteins
GN Papanicolaou first reported the ability to recognize cancer in vaginal smears, thus beginning clinical cytology; FA Paneth founds radiochemistry
Otto Folin introduces the use of the light filter in colorimetry
Kay develops the first clinical laboratory method for alkaline phosphatase, thus beginning clinical enzymology
Cherry and Crandall develop the method for serum lipase activity
Commericial development of the electron microscope takes place
Beckman Instruments introduces the first pH meter
Somogyi develops 2 major methods for serum and urine amylase activity
Conway and Cook develop the first method for blood ammonia
Penicillin is successfully used in therapy
Sunderman applies refractometry of proteins in the clinical lab
Borgstrom develops the whole blood clotting time test
The Vacutainer evacuated serum collection tube is introduced by Becton Dickinson Co; Arne Tiselius separates proteins by chromatography; College of American Pathologists is founded.
Yalow and Berson developed radioimmunoassay
MD Poulik invents immunoelectrophoresis
Kuby develops the method for serum creatine phosphokinase activity; Walsh develops the atomic absorption spectrophotometer
Wroblewski and LaDue develop the method for serum alanine aminotransferase activity called „serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase‟ and recognize its greater specificity for liver disease compared with that of AST; Edwards proposes prenatal screening for genetic disease
Van Handel and Zilversmit develop a direct method for determination of triglycerides
Methods for CPK isoenzymes are developed; the first method for GGT in serum is developed; Perkin-Elmer Corp. introduces atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the determination of calcium and magnesium; the laser is developed; Feichtmeier invents the mechanical pipettor (Auto-Dilutor).
Becton Dickinson Co. introduces disposable hypodermic syringe and needle
Scanning electron microscope is developed
High performance liquid chromatography becomes widely applied in analytical chemistry
; U.S. Centers for Disease Control is founded; National Accrediting Agency for the Clinical Laboratory Sciences is founded.
The laser cell sorter is developed; Roche Diagnostics first commercializes the carcinoembryoruc antigen assay
The first automated radioimmunoassay is introduced by Micromedic Corp.; at least 1 gene is assigned to each of the 24 human chromosomes by this date
M.E. Yank introduces prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a serum tumor marker
Colcher introduces the CA-72 serum tumor marker primarily for colorectal cancer.
H. Koprowski introduces CA-19-9 as a serum tumor marker primarily for pancreatic cancer; R.C. Bast introduces CA.- 125 as a serum tumor marker primarily for ovarian cancer.
CA.-50 Assay is commercialized by Sterna Diagnostics of Sweden; Genentech, Inc:, produces genetically engineered clotting factor VIII; DNA fingerprinting is developed
R. Tobias introduces CA-15-3 as a serum tumor marker primarily for breast cancer R. K. Mullis et al. invent the technique of polymerase chain reaction, the first gene amplification technology
KR. Brav introduccs CA-549 as a serum tumor marker primarily for breast cancer; S, Fukuta introduces CA-195 as a serum tumor marker primarily for colorectal cancer by this date at least 1,215 expressed genes are assigned to specific chromosomes
FDA approves Dako's immunohistochemical assay, Herceptest, for detection of HER2 protein, the target of trastuzamab (Herceptin), a genetically engineered treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
Continued deciphering of the human genetic code promises to dramatically expand the menu of diagnostic and prognostic tests; Quest Diagnostics acquires SmithKline Beecham Clinical Labs.
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