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WALKING CITY Walking City came out of the idea of the city as a changing entity which could respond to the inhabitants' immediate needs. The idea was of a world capital capable of being anywhere in the world at any time, a kind of United Nations City taken to an extreme.
PLUGIN CITY This project suggests a hypothetical fantasy city, containing modular residential units that “plug in” to a central infrastructural mega machine. The Plug-in City is in fact not a city, but a constantly evolving megastructure that incorporates residences, transportation and other essen- tial services - all movable by giant cranes.
THE MONTREAL BIOSPHERE A geodesic dome designed by Buckminster Fuller for the World Fair Expo 67. It originally featured a system of retractable shading screens that were computationally adjusted toward the direction of the sun to control the temperature inside the pavilion.
INSTANT CITY Instant City is a mobile technological event that drifts into underdeveloped, drab towns via air (balloons) with provisional structures (performance spaces) in tow. The effect is a deliberate overstimulation to produce mass culture, with an embrace of advertising aesthetics. The whole endeavor is intended to eventually move on leaving behind advanced technology hook-ups.
NEW BABYLON /1959-1974/ An anti-capitalist city, perceived and designed as a future potentiality by visual artist C. Nieuwenhuys. The city was to be a series of linked transformable structures, some of which were themselves the size of a small city. In the New Babylon, the bourgeois shackles of work, family life, and civic respon- sibility would be discarded. The post- revolutionary individual would wander from one leisure environment to another in search of new sensations.
HAUS RUCKER CO.'S OASE NO.7 /1972/ Made from pneumatic structures created for Documenta 5 in Kassel, Germany. An inflatable structure emerged from the façade of an existing building creating a space for relaxation and play, of which contemporary echoes can be found in the 'urban reserves' of Santiago Cirugeda
PRAIRIE HOUSE IN ILLINOIS /2011/ Designed by ORAMBRA, The Office for Robotic Architectural Media & The Bureau for Responsive Architecture in Chicago, the Prairie House in Illinois (2011) implements new tensegrity systems and cladding technologies. Through the use of thermo or photo-chromatic inks, the colour of the interior membrane of the building becomes lighter on warmer days and darker on colder days. The result is a piece of responsive architecture that both radically cuts carbon emissions an
D-Tower, Doetinchem, Netherlands (1998–2003), architect NOX/ Lars Spuybroek. D-Tower is a hybrid digital and material construct, which consists of a biomorphic built structure (the tower), a website and a questionnaire that form an interactive system of relationships in which “the intensive (feelings, qualities) and the extensive (space, quantities) start exchanging roles, where human action, color, money, value, feelings all become networked entities.”
FOSTER & PARTNERS CITY HALL, LONDON /1998 - 2002/ The “pebble-like” form of the building in the end resulted from optimization of its energy performance by minimizing the surface area exposed to direct sunlight. The building’s form is a deformed sphere, which has a 25% smaller surface area than a cube of identical volume, resulting in reduced solar heat gain and heat loss through the building’s skin.
HERMAN MILLER FACTORY - BATH, UK (1976) Through early use of fiberglass panelling, a very flexible adaptable skin was achieved. The combination of this and a flexible servicing strategy inside allowed the building to behave like an organism that can adapt to suit different demands. Over 15 years of use, the factory has been rearranged five times. By embedding adaptability, the architects created an architecture that not only performs over time but that also improves the quality of life for its users.
THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO'S NEURAL NETWORK HOUSE /1990/ The house’s programmed intelligence is able to learn about the habits and needs of the user through a series of subtle user-oriented tests. The autonomous home which is capable of learning the habits of its users, associating a real world cost to those habits and making a calculated decision based on opportunity cost.
The flexible IGUS factory by Nicholas Grimshaw Cologne (1990 - 2000) The building has grown over the last ten years to about 400% of its original size, which has been possible because it was built around courtyards and based on a design that did anticipate change. A series of modular elements float inside the building, and can contain a variety of functions, such as office spaces or restrooms.
Herman Miller Warehouse, Chippenham /1982/ It had to have a large span and be essentially a big warehouse, but one with the scope for conversion to office use in the future.
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