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8 months ago
☆ These Opium Wars caused China's reputation to be humiliated and proved to all China's neighbors that the once-mighty China was weak and vulnerable = China began to lose power over surrounding regions.
France seizes Southeast Asia, creating its colony of French Indochina
☆ Japan stripped away Taiwan, took effective control of Korea (formerly a Chinese tributary) after the First Sino-Japanese War & imposed unequal trade demands in the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki.
➤ By 1900, foreign powers (Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan) had highly influenced China's coast - areas where foreign powers controlled trade and military. The balance of power had tipped away from the imperial court and toward the foreign powers.
Hundred Days of Reform
Immediate impact: → September 21, 1898: Empress Dowager Cixi put Guangxu under house arrest until his death (1908) and Cixi took over the government as regent → The reversal of most of reform measures & execution of key reformers Long term impact: → anti-foreign opinions grew = influenced Boxer Rebellion → the punishment of reformers widened the division between Manchu and Han
The failure of the Boxer Rebellion led to a revolution in 1911 and the fall of the Qing Dynasty
First Opium War
Second Opium War
First Sino-Japanese War
The political reforms introduced in 1909-1911 were too little and too late
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