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social studies Timeline
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Johnson creates a plan. His plan allowed all southern states to organize a new government and elect representatives. But they must ratify the 13th amendment
Voicing alarm at the treatment of African Americans in the South, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866. It granted citizenship rights to African Americans and guaranteed the civil rights of all people except Native Americans. Johnson vetoed this law and another law that extended the life of the Freed- men's Bureau. Congress overturned both vetoes.
Lincoln introduced what was called The Ten Percent Plan. As soon as 10% of the states voters swore an oath of loyalty to the US they could organize new government. But that government would have to declare to end slavery. Then they could take part in the government again. Lincolns plan included amnesty for former Confederates who took the loyalty oath.
Congress passed a much stricter plan for reconstruction called the Wade- Davis Bill. 50% of voters would have to sign loyalty oath before a state could return to Union. And anyone who had voluntarily fought for the Confederacy would be barred from voting for delegates to a convention to write a new state constitution. It did not give them the right to vote. It never became law because Lincoln refused to sign it.
The 13th amendment is passed. It banned slavery and forced labor throughout the nation.
It was urgent to deal with the needs of freed men. Congress created the Freedmen's Bureau to provide emergency relief to people displaced by the war. It set up schools, helped people find jobs and resolved disputes between black and whites.
Lincoln is Murdered. A confederate sympathizer named John Wilkes Booth slipped up behind Lincoln while he and his wife were attending a play at the Ford's Theatre. Booth fired a single shot into the back of Lincoln's head. He died a few hours later.
Andrew Johnson becomes President.
Congress also passed the 14th amendment. It says that all people born or naturalized in the US are citizens. It also says that states cannot pass laws that take away a citizen's rights. Nor can a state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any the equal protection of laws.
Radical Republicans had won enough support to begin a hard reconstruction. The reconstruction Act of 1867 removed all states who refused to ratify the 14th amendment. Then it imposed military rule on on these states dividing them into five districts.
Two brothers Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce served in the senate. They were the first African American senators.
Congress also approved the 15th amendment. This amendment barred all states from denying African Americans the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
General Ulysses S. Grant becomes President
Angry at being shut out of power, some whites resorted to violence. A well known secret society was the Ku Klux Klan. They would shout threats and burn wooden crosses. The clan would whip, torture, shoot, or hang African Americans and their white allies. Klan violence took hundreds of lives during the election of 1868.
Rosa Parks is arrested because she refused to give up her seat for a white person.
The Montgomery bus boycott was when African Americans did not rid the bus to make them lose money
Martin Luther King Jr. says his "I have a dream Speech".
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