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Svante Arrhenius publishes first calculation of global warming from human emissions of CO2.
Guy Stweart Callendar argues that CO2 greenhouse global warming is underway, reviving interest in the question
US Office of Naval Research begins generous funding of many fields of science, some of which happen to be useful for understanding climate change.
Gilbert Plass calculates that adding CO2 to the atmosphere will have a significant effect on the radiation balance.
Roger Revelle finds that CO2 produced by humans will not be readily absorbed by the oceans.
Charles David Keeling accurately measures CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere and detects an annual rise. The level is 315 ppm. Mean global temperature (five-year average) is 13.9°C.
Keeling accurately measures CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere and detects an annual rise.
Emiliani's analysis of deep-sea cores and Broecker's analysis of ancient corals show that the timing of ice ages was set by small orbital shifts, suggesting that the climate system is sensitive to small changes.
Nimbus III satellite begins to provide comprehensive global atmospheric temperature measurements.
First Earth Day. Environmental movement attains strong influence, spreads concern about global degradation
Creation of US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the world's leading funder of climate research.
Aerosols from human activity are shown to be increasing swiftly. Bryson claims they counteract global warming and may bring serious cooling.
SMIC conference of leading scientists reports a danger of rapid and serious global change caused by humans, calls for an organized research effort.
Droughts in Africa, Ukraine, India cause world food crisis, spreading fears about climate change.
Warnings about environmental effects of airplanes leads to investigations of trace gases in the stratosphere and discovery of danger to ozone layer.
Deforestation and other ecosystem changes are recognized as major factors in the future of the climate.
Scientific opinion tends to converge on global warming, not cooling, as the chief climate risk in next century
Some scientists predict greenhouse warming "signal" should be visible by about the year 2000.
Greenland ice cores reveal drastic temperature oscillations in the space of a century in the distant past.
Reports from US National Academy of Sciences and Environmental Protection Agency spark conflict, as greenhouse warming becomes prominent in mainstream politics.
Speculation over catastrophic climate change following a nuclear war, or a dinosaur-killing asteroid strike, promote realization of the atmosphere's fragility.
Ramanathan and collaborators announce that global warming may come twice as fast as expected, from rise of methane and other trace greenhouse gases.
Montreal Protocol of the Vienna Convention imposes international restrictions on emission of ozone-destroying gases.
News media coverage of global warming leaps upward following record heat and droughts plus testimony by Hansen.
Toronto conference calls for strict, specific limits on greenhouse gas emissions; UK Prime Minister Thatcher is first major leader to call for action.
Second IPCC report detects "signature" of human-caused greenhouse effect warming, declares that serious warming is likely in the coming century
A "Super El Niño" makes this an exceptionally warm year, equaled in later years but not clearly exceeded until 2014. Borehole data confirm extraordinary warming trend
Ramanathan detects massive "brown cloud" of aerosols from South Asia
Warming observed in ocean basins; match with computer models gives a clear signature of greenhouse effect warming.
Numerous observations raise concern that collapse of ice sheets (West Antarctica, Greenland) can raise sea level faster than most had believed.
Hurricane Katrina and other major tropical storms spur debate over impact of global warming on storm intensity.
China overtakes the United States as the world’s biggest emitter of CO2.
Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover found to be shrinking faster than expected
Climate scientists (although not the public) recognize that even if all greenhouse gas emissions could be halted immediately, global warming will continue for millennia.
Many experts warn that global warming is arriving at a faster and more dangerous pace than anticipated just a few years earlier.
Controversial "attribution" studies find recent disastrous heat waves, droughts, extremes of precipitation, and floods were made worse by global warming.
Researchers find collapse of West Antarctic ice sheet is irreversible, will bring meters of sea-level rise over future centuries.
Mean global temperature is 14.8°C, the warmest in thousands of years. Level of CO2 in the atmosphere reaches 400 ppm, the highest in millions of years.
Second Industrial Revolution. Fertilizers and other chemicals, electricity, and public health further accelerate growth.
World War I; governments learn to mobilize and control industrial societies.
World War II. Military grand strategy is largely driven by a struggle to control oil fields.
Milankovitch proposes orbital changes as the cause of ice ages.
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