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Gutenberg printed a complete Bible, the Gutenberg Bible
Martin Luther writes 95 Theses
Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther
The pope gives Henry VIII title “Defender of the Faith.”
Cosimo de Medici won control of Florence’s government.
Many cities grew rapidly. Urban merchants became wealthy enough to sponsor artists. Turks reconquer Constantinople.
Cosimo de Medici dies
Lorenzo de Medici, comes into power
Baldassare Castiglione wrote a book called The Courtier that taught how to become a "Renaissance Man"
The Prince is written by Niccolò Machiavelli
French king claims the throne of Naples in southern Italy and launched an invasion through northern Italy. Albrecht Dürer travels to Italy to study in.
Desiderius Erasmus of Holland and Thomas More of England wrote his most famous work, The Praise of Folly.
Thomas More writes the book Utopia.
Shakespeare is living in London and writing poems and plays
Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press
Luther returns to Wittenberg
Bands of angry German peasants went about destroying things, Luther urges the German princes to show the peasants no mercy. 100,000 people were killed and many peasants rejected Luther’s religious leadership.
Rise of the Protestants
Henry dies; Catherine Parr, his sixth wife, outlives him; Edward VI begins six-year rule; Protestants are strong.
Peace of Augsburg
Henry asks the pope to end his first marriage;the pope refuses.
Henry summons the Reformation Parliament; dismantling of pope’s power in England begins.
Parliament places clergy under Henry’s control; Henry divorces Catherine, marries Anne Boleyn;daughter Elizabeth born.
Act of Supremacy names Henry and his successors supreme head of the English Church.
Henry has Thomas More arrested and executed.
Anne Boleyn is beheaded.
Henry’s third wife, Jane Seymour, has son, Edward. She dies from complications.
Elizabeth I begins rule
Parliament follows Elizabeth’s wishes and set up the Church of England, or Anglican Church
Huldrych Zwingli openly attacked abuses in the Catholic Church.
A bitter war between Swiss Protestants and Catholics broke out.
John Calvin publishes Institutes of the Christian Religion.
Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland, asked Calvin to lead their city.
Rise of the Presbyterians; Paul IV has officials draw up a list of books considered dangerous to the Catholic faith for burning.
Catholic feast of St. Bartholomew’s Day began hunting for Protestants and murdering them.
Ignatius began writing a book called Spiritual Exercises
The pope creates a religious order for his followers called the Society of Jesus.
Council of Trent
Council of Trent (Final doctrines agreed upon)
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