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1590 Dutch lens grinders Hans and Zacharias Janssen invent the first compound microscope by packing two lenses in a tube.
1665 Robert Hooke observes cork and names the tiny chambers that he sees cells. He publishes drawing of cells, fleas, and other minute bodies in his book Micrographia.
1683 Dutch biologist Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovers single- celled, animal-like organisms, now called protozoans.
1830-1855 Scientists discover the cell nucleus (1833) and propose that both plants and animals are composed of cells (1839).
1880-1890 Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch, using compound microscopes, pioneered the study of bacteria.
1939 Ernest Everett Just writes the textbook Biology of the Cell Surface after years of studying the structure and function of cells.
1970 Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist, proposes the idea that some organelles found in eukaryotes were once free-living prokaryotes.
1981 The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) allows scientists to see individual atoms.
2008 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) combines a 3D view, high resolution, and multiple colors.
1865 Gregor Johann Mendel works out laws of inheritance; founds science of genetics.
1752 Albrecht von Haller shows muscles are stimulated by nerves.
1768 Lazzaro Spallanzani observes microorganisms on food do not survive when boiled or kept from air.
1796 Edward Jenner discovers first vaccine for smallpox.
1609 Galileo Galilei invents microscope.
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