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19th Century Timeline
3 months ago
Beginning of 19th Century
Unification of Italy: After Napoleon lost control of Italyafter the Battle of Waterloo, Giuseppe Mazzini tried to start a "secret society" of Italians. Unfortunately for Giuseppe, Sardinia took over Italy in 1849. They also conquered many other countries in the "Italian States" region. Rome was one of the last to be unified, and when all of those states were controlled by one power they decided to call it Italy (hence "The Unification of Italy").
Unification of Germany: Prussia was the main force that brought unification to Germany. The Zollverein, the economic union of Prussia got rid of tariffs that restricted trade between German states. Prussia conquered a lot of land between 1865 and 1867, and just four years later the unified to create the German Empire.
French Revolution of 1848: By the 1840s, King Philippe led France into a recession. At theend of 1848, the National Assembly wanted to restore order, so they started a second republic. It had a strong president along with a one-house legislature. One of the major demands of the people was met with this: all adult men the right to vote. Lewis Napoleon was elected as president; he eventually declared himself emperor in 1852; he would end up being the end of French leadership in Europe.
End of 19th Century
French Revolution of 1830: Even under King Louis XVIII's rule, the people were struggling with the same issues as in the 18th century: monarchy vs democracy, being able to afford food, etc. After Louis XVIII died in 1824, Charles X took his place as king; King Charles was much more in favor of absolutism and restricted people's rights much more than the previous king. He was forced out of office by both liberals and radicals alike. Louis Philippe was eventually crowned king and was very well liked.
Independece for Haiti: Haiti was a very valuable part of France in the 1700s. There was debate whether or not to help slaves gain freedom, but Hatians were not included in the discussion. The Hatians felt that they were being treated unfairly, so they revolted and eventually gained independence.
Independence for Mexico: Mexico was scared to do as the Hatians did because it would have effected them economically and socially. However, a priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, inspired his Church goers to fight for their liberty and independence. That speech that inspired the Mexican people is called "El Grito de Dolores" (the cry of Dolores). It was a call for Mexicans to fight for "Independence and Liberty."
Independence for Brazil: The king of Portugal had control of Brazil until Napoleon retreated from Brazil. Before he returned to Portugal, he appointed his son to be ruler of Brazil. During his time as ruler of Brazil, his Portugal was going through a revolution. The revolutionaries were trying to do things that would have been bad for Brazil's progress as a country, so instead of going along with these changes he declared Brazil an independent country.
Russian Decembrist Revolt: Russia was an autocracy, so the enlightenment ideals that were moving around Europe at the time. Alexander I inherited the throne around same time as Napoleon rose to power, and before Napoleon attacked Russia Alexander was open to liberal ideas of less censorship and promoting education. The soldiers sent to fight Napoleon learned of these enlightenment ideas and wantd them to apply to their own lives. They led a revolt against
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