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Events

Oldest mathematical artifacts found in AfricaEmergence of mathematics as a specific activity in Ancient Near East.Rhind Papyrus:Resurgence of mathematics for Babylonian astronomyAnnotated and supplemented version of "The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art"Beginning of the Chinese mathematical traditionFinal form of the Indian Vedas - contained some mathematical materialEarliest Greek mathematical argumentsEuclids ElementsThales - first Greek MathematicianPythagorusAlexandria is the first real center of Greek mathArchimedes writes about areas of various curved figuresApollonius writes a treatise on conic sectionsPappus criticizes proposal for only using a ruler and compass for constructionClaudius Ptolemy - most famous Greek astronomerDiophantus studies solving algebraic problemsPappus's "Collection" - most important late Greek mathematicianGreek math "loses its flair"Theon prepares new editions of Euclid's Elements and Ptolemy's Syntaxis in AlexandriaProclus - last important writer of the Greek traditionBrahmagupta and Bhaskara I: most important Indian mathematiciansIndian mathematicians using a decimal place-value systemManuscript written in Syria mentions the new method of calculation (decimal place-value system)Decimal place value system used in Baghdad, then taken to EuropeFirst scientific works brought to Baghdad, probably from IndiaRobert of Chester translates Al-Khwarizmi's "al-jabr" book into LatinFrench Revolution: schools for the middle class introduced and mathematicians were expected to teach. Created a demand for rigorFrench government adopts metric system - spreads to other countriesFirst International Congress of Mathematicians was held in ZurichPeriods

Old Babylonian Period - This is the period when most of Mesopotamian mathematics occurred.Greek Mathematical PeriodPractical Greek math problems by HeronPlatoAristotleAdvent of IslamIslamic forces conquer all of North Africa, most of the Middle East and parts of Western EuropeAryabhata works in Indian mathematicsBhaskara II - most important medieval Indian mathematicianIndian MathematicsArabic MathMuhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi - one of the earliest Arabic mathematiciansUmar Al Khayammi - one of the most famous Arabic mathematiciansGerbert d'Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) learned math in Spain and reintroduced arithmetic and geometryEstablishment of first Universities in Bologna, Oxford, Paris, etc.Nicole Oresme - greatest scholar studying kinematics at Oxford and ParisLeonardo of Pisa:Abraham bar Hiyya of Spain - influenced Leonardo of PisaLuca Pacioli: Wrote Summa de Aritmetica, Geometria, Proportione e ProporionaliteJohannes Muller (also known as Regiomontanas)Robert Recorde:Wrote The Grounde of Artes (1544) - arithmetic and The Whetstone of White (1557) - algebraPedro Nunes - Portuguese mathematicianMichael Stifel - German mathematicianScipione del Ferro (Italy): First breakthrough on solving cubic equationsTartaglia (Italy): Second breakthrough on solving cubic equationsGirolamo Cardano (Italy): Generalized method of solving cubic equationsLodovico Ferrari: Student of Cardeno who found a solution for solving equations of degree 4Rafael Bombelli: published "Algebra" and fixed Cardano's cubic formulaFrancois Viete: Started using letters to stand for numbersRene Descartes: Brought algebra to a mature statePierre de Fermat: linked algebra and geometry along with Descartes, inventing "coordinate geometry"Galileo Galilei: blended obervation with mathematical analysisJohannes Kepler (German): Used old Greek conic sections to describe the solar systemFather Marin Mergenne: tried to get scholars to work together to try and understand the worldThomas Harriot (England): further developed algebra and applied math to optics, navigation, and other questionsBonavent ura Vavalier: Jesuat and former student of Galileo, and professor at the University of BolognaBirth of Calculus:Jakob Bernoulli - learned to use calculus and taught math in Basel, SwitzerlandJohann Bernoulli: taught calculus to Marquis de L'Hospital through lettersDaniel Bernoulli (son of Johann): used calculus to study mechanics and hydro dynamicsMarquis de L'Hospital: published the first calculus textbook (1696) from Bernoulli's lettersMaria Gaetana Agnesi: became on e of the first women to have an influence on modern mathematics with a text on algebra, geometry, and calculusEmilie de Chatelet: used calculus to study physics and gravitation. Translated Newton's "Principia" into FrenchLeonhard Euler (Switzerland): Greatest mathematician of the timePierre Simon Laplace: applied mathematician, wrote famous books on celestial mechanics and probabilityJoseph-Louis Lagrange: worked on all areas of mathematics. Laid out a mathematical theory of how and why things moved (no diagrams)George Berkeley: Irish philosopher and Anglican Bishop of the CloyneJean le Rond d'Alembert: French mathematician and philosopher, editor of Encyclopedie who said "persist, and fait will come"Carl Friedrich Gauss: child prodegy. Made new discoveries at age 17. Published Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in 1801Augustin Louis Cauchy: became a professor at Ecole Polytechnique in Paris as a very young man.Karl Weierstrass: teacher who improved some flaws in Cauchy's work in calculus. Became a professor at the University of Berlin. Transformed the basis of calculus.Richard Dedekind: investigated the foundations of artimeticGiuseppe Peano: studied the foundations of arithmeticGeorge Cantor: Invented notion of a set which lead to set theory as a foundation for all of mathematicsNiels Henrik Abel (Norway): proved there was no formula for the solution of an equation of degree 5Evariste Galois: brilliant and tempermental mathematicianJanos Bolyai: helped with Euclid's fifth postulate and its place in plane geometryNicolai Lobachevsky: Also helped with Euclid's fifth postulate and its place in plane geometryBernhard Riemann: Geometric discoveries key to electromagnetism, lead to non-Euclidean geometry, became more abstract, also helped with Euclid's 5th postulateAlbert Einstein used Riemann's geometric language to describe his insights into gravitationJoseph Fourier: invented Fourier series to study heat dynamicsSophie Germain: contemporary of Gauss, Cauchy, and Fourier. Discriminated against for being a womanFelia Klein: showed a link between non-Euclidean Geometry and Abstract AlgebraHenri Poincare: big contributions to arithmetic, algebra, geometry, analysis, astronomy, and mathematical physicsInvestigation of the foundations of math as a subjectKurt Godel: proved that it was impossible to prove that contradictions would not ariseEmmy Noether: extended Galois's thought that one must consider whole classes of algebraic operations in one blowEmil Artin: also extended Galois's thought that one must consider whole classes of algebraic operations in one blowYoung French mathematicians wrote the Elements of Mathematics and tried to revolutionize the subject. Pseudonym "Nicolas Bourbaki" used for the authorMathematicians help develop the computer