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The History of Mathematics in a huge nutshell
Created by
Ethan
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2 months ago
Events
Oldest mathematical artifacts found in Africa
Emergence of mathematics as a specific activity in Ancient Near East.
Rhind Papyrus:
Resurgence of mathematics for Babylonian astronomy
Annotated and supplemented version of "The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art"
Beginning of the Chinese mathematical tradition
Final form of the Indian Vedas - contained some mathematical material
Earliest Greek mathematical arguments
Euclids Elements
Thales - first Greek Mathematician
Pythagorus
Alexandria is the first real center of Greek math
Archimedes writes about areas of various curved figures
Apollonius writes a treatise on conic sections
Pappus criticizes proposal for only using a ruler and compass for construction
Claudius Ptolemy - most famous Greek astronomer
Diophantus studies solving algebraic problems
Pappus's "Collection" - most important late Greek mathematician
Greek math "loses its flair"
Theon prepares new editions of Euclid's Elements and Ptolemy's Syntaxis in Alexandria
Proclus - last important writer of the Greek tradition
Brahmagupta and Bhaskara I: most important Indian mathematicians
Indian mathematicians using a decimal place-value system
Manuscript written in Syria mentions the new method of calculation (decimal place-value system)
Decimal place value system used in Baghdad, then taken to Europe
First scientific works brought to Baghdad, probably from India
Robert of Chester translates Al-Khwarizmi's "al-jabr" book into Latin
French Revolution: schools for the middle class introduced and mathematicians were expected to teach. Created a demand for rigor
French government adopts metric system - spreads to other countries
First International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Zurich
Periods
Old Babylonian Period - This is the period when most of Mesopotamian mathematics occurred.
Greek Mathematical Period
Practical Greek math problems by Heron
Plato
Aristotle
Advent of Islam
Islamic forces conquer all of North Africa, most of the Middle East and parts of Western Europe
Aryabhata works in Indian mathematics
Bhaskara II - most important medieval Indian mathematician
Indian Mathematics
Arabic Math
Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi - one of the earliest Arabic mathematicians
Umar Al Khayammi - one of the most famous Arabic mathematicians
Gerbert d'Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) learned math in Spain and reintroduced arithmetic and geometry
Establishment of first Universities in Bologna, Oxford, Paris, etc.
Nicole Oresme - greatest scholar studying kinematics at Oxford and Paris
Leonardo of Pisa:
Abraham bar Hiyya of Spain - influenced Leonardo of Pisa
Luca Pacioli: Wrote Summa de Aritmetica, Geometria, Proportione e Proporionalite
Johannes Muller (also known as Regiomontanas)
Robert Recorde:Wrote The Grounde of Artes (1544) - arithmetic and The Whetstone of White (1557) - algebra
Pedro Nunes - Portuguese mathematician
Michael Stifel - German mathematician
Scipione del Ferro (Italy): First breakthrough on solving cubic equations
Tartaglia (Italy): Second breakthrough on solving cubic equations
Girolamo Cardano (Italy): Generalized method of solving cubic equations
Lodovico Ferrari: Student of Cardeno who found a solution for solving equations of degree 4
Rafael Bombelli: published "Algebra" and fixed Cardano's cubic formula
Francois Viete: Started using letters to stand for numbers
Rene Descartes: Brought algebra to a mature state
Pierre de Fermat: linked algebra and geometry along with Descartes, inventing "coordinate geometry"
Galileo Galilei: blended obervation with mathematical analysis
Johannes Kepler (German): Used old Greek conic sections to describe the solar system
Father Marin Mergenne: tried to get scholars to work together to try and understand the world
Thomas Harriot (England): further developed algebra and applied math to optics, navigation, and other questions
Bonavent ura Vavalier: Jesuat and former student of Galileo, and professor at the University of Bologna
Birth of Calculus:
Jakob Bernoulli - learned to use calculus and taught math in Basel, Switzerland
Johann Bernoulli: taught calculus to Marquis de L'Hospital through letters
Daniel Bernoulli (son of Johann): used calculus to study mechanics and hydro dynamics
Marquis de L'Hospital: published the first calculus textbook (1696) from Bernoulli's letters
Maria Gaetana Agnesi: became on e of the first women to have an influence on modern mathematics with a text on algebra, geometry, and calculus
Emilie de Chatelet: used calculus to study physics and gravitation. Translated Newton's "Principia" into French
Leonhard Euler (Switzerland): Greatest mathematician of the time
Pierre Simon Laplace: applied mathematician, wrote famous books on celestial mechanics and probability
Joseph-Louis Lagrange: worked on all areas of mathematics. Laid out a mathematical theory of how and why things moved (no diagrams)
George Berkeley: Irish philosopher and Anglican Bishop of the Cloyne
Jean le Rond d'Alembert: French mathematician and philosopher, editor of Encyclopedie who said "persist, and fait will come"
Carl Friedrich Gauss: child prodegy. Made new discoveries at age 17. Published Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in 1801
Augustin Louis Cauchy: became a professor at Ecole Polytechnique in Paris as a very young man.
Karl Weierstrass: teacher who improved some flaws in Cauchy's work in calculus. Became a professor at the University of Berlin. Transformed the basis of calculus.
Richard Dedekind: investigated the foundations of artimetic
Giuseppe Peano: studied the foundations of arithmetic
George Cantor: Invented notion of a set which lead to set theory as a foundation for all of mathematics
Niels Henrik Abel (Norway): proved there was no formula for the solution of an equation of degree 5
Evariste Galois: brilliant and tempermental mathematician
Janos Bolyai: helped with Euclid's fifth postulate and its place in plane geometry
Nicolai Lobachevsky: Also helped with Euclid's fifth postulate and its place in plane geometry
Bernhard Riemann: Geometric discoveries key to electromagnetism, lead to non-Euclidean geometry, became more abstract, also helped with Euclid's 5th postulate
Albert Einstein used Riemann's geometric language to describe his insights into gravitation
Joseph Fourier: invented Fourier series to study heat dynamics
Sophie Germain: contemporary of Gauss, Cauchy, and Fourier. Discriminated against for being a woman
Felia Klein: showed a link between non-Euclidean Geometry and Abstract Algebra
Henri Poincare: big contributions to arithmetic, algebra, geometry, analysis, astronomy, and mathematical physics
Investigation of the foundations of math as a subject
Kurt Godel: proved that it was impossible to prove that contradictions would not arise
Emmy Noether: extended Galois's thought that one must consider whole classes of algebraic operations in one blow
Emil Artin: also extended Galois's thought that one must consider whole classes of algebraic operations in one blow
Young French mathematicians wrote the Elements of Mathematics and tried to revolutionize the subject. Pseudonym "Nicolas Bourbaki" used for the author
Mathematicians help develop the computer