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11 months ago
11 months ago
Start of Russian involvement in ww1. 17th August 1914
End of ww1
First Russian Offensive August 1914, against Germany in East Prussia. Battle of Tannenberg Aug 13th: German victory over Russian second army. General Samsonov shot himself. Russian force was quickly driven out of prussia after German reinforcement.
Russian army Sucess at border of Galacia in Austro-Hungarian empire. Russian army pushed into Poland and what is now present day Czechslovakia.
Germany declares war on Russia August 1st
13th August. Japan declare war on Germany. Japan allies with Britain. Relief for Russia as prior to 1914, many feared an attack from Japan or Ottoman forces.
Sept 14th. Battle of Masurian Lakes. Sucessful and victorious German 8th army attack Russian first army at masurian lakes. Russian victory but 100,00 Russians taken prisoner.
March 1918. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. after Bolshevik revo. Russians signed Armistice with Germany.The terms of the treaty were harsh: Russia had to surrender Poland, the Ukraine and other regions. They had to stop all Socialist propaganda directed at Germany and pay 300 million roubles for the repatriation of Russian prisoners.
1915: 'Great Retreat'. Russian forces driven out of Poland and Lithuania, which were now controlled by Germany with a population of 23million. One million Russian men were killed/wounded and a further one million taken prisoner.
Early 1916: General Sukhomlinov,Minister of War, arrested and was replaced by General Alexis Polivanov
August 1916, Tsar Nicholas assumes personal control of military.
May 22nd: 'Brusilov Offensive' counter-attack against Austro-Hungary. Austrian forces had been busy fighting in Italy and the Russian attack inflicted heavy losses.
Economic Outcome: Russian economy devastated. 8,000,000,000 rubles in war debts. Inflation was rising. Revenue was low while construction cost was high due to the nature of wartime supply.
Kulak land ownership: Conscription of peasants meant by 1917, kulaks owned more than 90% of the arable land in European Russia, where once the majority or arable land had been in the hands of peasant communes.
Food shortages: 1916, food prices accelerated three times higher than wages.
Tsarina and Rasputin in power: Nicholas as II, domestic governance of political affairs was in the hands of the Tsarina and Rasputin.
Tsarina and Rasputin: Tsarina Alexandra was a German princess. Widely disliked due to her German blood and extreme conservative nature. Many of Russian gentry suspected her to be supported by Gremany. Rasputin ''mad monk's'' association with the throne unsettled people even with in the gentry. Evident by his murder in 1916, as an attempt to cleanse and purify the monarchy.
August 1916 Romanian troops enter war after diplomatic promises made by Russia and France, including the promise of Transylvania to become Romanian after the war. German war effort mobilized troops to the new front. While military sucess was lacking due to poor training and overesitmated power of troops, the Romanian involvement reignited some hope in the Triple Antente. Evident by Von Hidenburgs words 'Romania has before never been given a role so imporant'
Social: February revolution resulted in creation of provisional government. 90,000 women workers protested the war in Petrograd in the same month. Nicholas did not take reports of the violence seriously.
Lenin announced that the new regime would end the war following october revolution.
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