June 30, 2021
For educational institutions
First Nations timeline.
⟶ Updated 21 Jan 2020 ⟶
List of edits
1535: Jacques Cartier makes his second voyage to Canada with three ships and 110 Men to try to do more trading and continue to try and find a trade route to China.
1536: After Jacques Cartier lost 25 men to a disease called scurvy he sailed back to France having once again failed to find a way through North America to China. He also took 10 Iroquois with him.
1600: While beaver skin hats are growing in popularity in France, French explorers come back to Canada to trade with better items. First Nations immediately drop all hostility and allow the Europeans to live in Canada. The Europeans unknowingly bring diseases over to Canada, diseases that may have been minor to the Europeans but devastating for the First Nations.
1604: King Henry IV tries once again to claim North America for the French. He is successful. This will lead to full-blown colonization where the french will bring foreign diseases to Canada juristically lowering the once great numbers of First Nations.
1763: This is the end of the Seven Years' War, a war between two sets of enemies. One side is the French and the Algonquin and the other side is the British and the Iroquois. In the end, the British and the Iroquois won the war and the Algonquin were probably not treated as well as the Iriquois.
1867: This is the year that the BNA Act is signed, making Canada a country. The First Nations have no say in this even though it is their land. This is one of the many reasons why First Nations peoples do not pay property tax, we are on their land, Canada is their land and we have taken it from them, that is why we are doing everything we can to make the wrong things we did right.
1876: The Indian Act is formed, banning most Indigenous cultural practices and religious ceremonies. Another part of the Indian Act is the Reserve System. The Reserve System gives First Nations full access to do whatever they want (within reason) on a small portion of their former land. However, they still do not own this land. The land is still under the Government's control. Furthermore not all First Nations tribes have a reserve, tribes like the Caldwell First Nation in Ontario.
1885: The Government starts expanding the ban of important Indigenous ceremonies like the Sun Dance. This is one of the movements that the Government makes that leads to the North-west resistance in western Canada later in 1885. The North-West resistance is a five-month-long battle between the métis (led by Louis Riel) and Canadian troops. Canada won and Louis Riel would be hung for treason the same year on November 16th.
1899: Treaty #8 is made. It allows the British to mine and log in First Nation's territory. In return, the British would protect the First Nation's way of life. The British did not keep their end of the bargain.
1992: The Charlottetown Accord tries to change the Canadian Constitution to recognize Indigenous self-Governing. Self-Governing means a lot to First Nations because before the Europeans came to Canada all of the tribes had different rules that were decided by their own Government. if we give self-governing back to the First Nations it would be a big step towards fixing our relationship with the Indigenous people of Canada. Sadly they did not get enough votes to change it.
1998: The Government signs a land-claims treaty with the Nisga'a Nation. The Nisga'a Nation receive $200 million and 5 percent of their traditional land back.
1993: Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act. This treaty involves the Government of Canada, the Government of the Northwest Territories and the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut. It is the first modern treaty in British Colombia. It will lead to the creation of the Nunavut territory 6 years later.
1857: The Gradual Civilization Act is passed by the British government to get the First Nations to join British society. Any Indigenous person who becomes a British citizen surrendered their 'status' as a First Nations person. This is a way to assimilate Indigenous peoples.
1982: In the 1982 Canadian Constitution update, the Métis and the Inuit peoples were recognized as First Nation tribes of Canada. Up until now, the Métis and Inuit peoples were not recognized as Indigenous peoples of Canada. When they were not recognized as Indegeones peoples they did not receive the rights that they were entitled to as First Nations peoples of Canada.
1541-1542: Once again Jacques Cartier comes back to Canada but this time in search of gold. He establishes a fort called Charlesbourg-Royale. It is abandoned in June of 1542 after losing 35 settlers to first nation hostility.
1830-1840: The first residential schools are opened by churches in the 1830s. These are schools where the First Nation children, who are taken from their families, are not allowed to speak their language, wear traditional clothes and the only religion they are allowed and forced to practice is Christianity. The last residential school will not be closed until 1996.
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