January 31, 2020
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Timeline Histoire de la Chine
⟶ Updated 19 days ago ⟶
List of edits
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China periods timeline
Source: wikipédia data
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Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (900-979)
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Han Dynasty timeline (-200/220)
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Modern China Timeline ( 1912-2019)
The Erlitou culture appeared.
Wong abandoned the well-field system under pressure from the aristocracy.
Liu Zhiji compiled the Shitong.
The Song general Wen Tianxiang was captured by Yuan forces.
Sun Yat-sen resigned in favor of Yuan Shikai.
Xie was succeeded by his son Bu Jiang.
Wong imposed government monopolies on liquor, salt, iron, coinage, forestry, and fishing.
Shangguan Wan'er died.
The Tongmenghui and several smaller revolutionary parties merged to form the Kuomintang (KMT).
Bu abdicated in favor of his younger brother Jiong of Xia.
Mother Lü initiated a rebellion against a county magistrate in Haiqu County, near modern Rizhao.
Zhongzong died after being poisoned, probably by his wife Empress Wei.
Duanzong's younger brother Emperor Bing of Song became emperor of the Song dynasty.
Republic of China National Assembly election: An election to the National Assembly under the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China began which would produce pluralities for the KMT in the House and Senate.
Mount Tai earthquake: An earthquake occurred at Mount Tai.
Yang Xiong died.
Zhongzong's son Emperor Shang of Tang became emperor of Tang, with Wei acting as regent.
Battle of Yamen: A Yuan fleet destroyed a vastly superior Song force near Yamen. The Song chancellor Lu Xiufu drowned himself with Bing.
Assassination of Song Jiaoren: Song Jiaoren, founder of the KMT was assassinated, most likely by then-president Yuan Shikai.
Jiong was succeeded by his son Jin of Xia.
Battle of Kunyang: Lülin forces broke the siege of Kunyang, in modern Ye County, by a vastly superior Xin army.
A coup led by Gaozong's daughter Princess Taiping and grandson Emperor Xuanzong of Tang killed Wei and deposed Shang in favor of his uncle, Gaozong's son Emperor Ruizong of Tang.
The Zhongdu-born Rabban Bar Sauma left for Europe as an ambassador of Arghun, the khan of the Ilkhanate.
Japan issued the Twenty-One Demands to the Republic of China, including demands for territory in Shandong, Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, rights of extraterritoriality for its citizens in China, and influence in China's internal affairs.
Jin was succeeded by his cousin, Bu's son Kong Jia.
Lülin rebels stormed the Weiyang Palace and killed Wong. The Gengshi Emperor ascended the throne, restoring the Han dynasty.
The Pear Garden was established.
Battle of Pagan: Yuan forces captured the Pagan capital Bagan.
Chen Duxiu founded the magazine New Youth.
Kong was succeeded by his son Gao of Xia.
Red Eyebrows Rebellions: The Gengshi Emperor was executed.
The Kaiyuan Za Bao was first published.
Battle of Bạch Đằng: Đại Việt decisively defeated a numerically superior Yuan invasion fleet on the Bạch Đằng River.
Yuan declared himself the Hongxian Emperor of the Empire of China.
Gao was succeeded by his son Fa of Xia.
Red Eyebrows Rebellions: The Red Eyebrows appointed Liu Penzi their emperor.
Yi Xing invented a water-powered armillary sphere.
Europeans in Medieval China: Franciscan friars first conducted missionary work in China.
The progressive, anti-Confucian New Culture Movement was founded.
Fa was succeeded by his son Jie of Xia.
The Han warlord Emperor Guangwu of Han took the title emperor.
Gautama Siddha completed the compilation of the Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era.
National Protection War: The republican generals Cai E and Tang Jiyao declared the independence of Yunnan from the Empire of China.
Jie was succeeded by Tang of Shang, marking the beginning of the Shang dynasty.
Red Eyebrows Rebellions: The Red Eyebrows surrendered to the Han dynasty.
Wu Daozi died.
Kublai's grandson Temür Khan became emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
The Erligang culture appeared.
Du Shi invented waterwheel-powered bellows for smelting cast iron.
Meng Haoran died.
John of Montecorvino arrives in China and is appointed Archbishop of Khanbaliq (Beijing).
May Fourth Movement: A student protest against the Treaty of Versailles took place at Tiananmen.
Pan Geng became king of the Shang dynasty.
Ban Gu, co-author of the Book of Han, is born.
Du Fu and Li Bai first met.
Wang Zhen invented movable wooden type.
The Treaty of Versailles, among whose provisions was the transfer of German territories in Shandong to Japan, was signed.
The capital of the Shang dynasty was moved from Yan to Yin.
A blockade of the Yangtze River by the rebel Gongsun Shu was broken by Han castle ships.
Battle of Talas: After the defection of their Karluk mercenaries, a Tang force was defeated by a vastly superior Abbasid-Tibetan allied army on the Talas River, probably near modern Talas.
The Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded.
Wu Ding became king of the Shang dynasty.
Second Chinese domination of Vietnam: Vietnam fell into Han control.
An Lushan Rebellion: The Tang jiedushi An Lushan declared himself emperor of Yan.
Temür's nephew Külüg Khan became emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
The first installment of Lu Xun's novel The True Story of Ah Q, the first work written in written vernacular Chinese, was published.
Oracle bones were first used for divination; evidence of oracle bone script first appears.
Ban Zhao, China's first female historian, is born.
Zhang Xuan died.
The Radio Corporation of China was founded.
Wu's wife, the general and high priestess Fu Hao, died and was buried at the tomb of Fu Hao in Yinxu.
The Yuejue Shu was written.
Battle of Yongqiu: Yan forces retreated from their siege of a Tang fortress in Yongqiu, in modern Kaifeng.
Külüg's younger brother Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan became emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
The KMT and CPC agreed to the First United Front, under which Communists would join the KMT as individuals to help combat warlordism.
Wu died. He was succeeded by his son Zu Geng of Shang.
Guangwu died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Ming of Han.
The Tang army declared Xuanzong's son Emperor Suzong of Tang emperor at Lingwu.
Guo Shoujing died.
Sun Yat-sen, China's Father of the Nation, dies from cancer.
Geng Ding became king of the Shang dynasty.
The Han chancellor Deng Yu died.
Xuanzong recognized Suzong as emperor.
Northern Expedition: The KMT general Chiang Kai-shek launched an expedition of some hundred thousand National Revolutionary Army (NRA) soldiers from Guangdong against the warlords Zhang Zuolin, Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang.
Geng was succeeded by his son Wu Yi of Shang.
Ming's half brother Liu Ying converted to Buddhism.
Battle of Suiyang: Yan forces finally conquered Suiyang, in modern Suiyang District, after a siege that cost the lives of some sixty thousand Yan soldiers and thirty thousand Tang civilians were lost to starvation and cannibalism.
Ayurbarwada's son Gegeen Khan became emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Shanghai massacre of 1927: KMT forces led by Chiang attack Communist allies in Shanghai, initiating a full-scale purge of Communists in regions under KMT control.
Wu was killed by lightning while out hunting. He was succeeded by his son Wen Ding.
The Buddhist White Horse Temple was established in Luoyang.
Arab and Persian pirates looted and burned the Tang seaport of Guangzhou.
Gegeen was assassinated by the Asud in a coup led by the Khongirad grand censor Tegshi.
Nanchang uprising: Communist forces launched an uprising against the KMT in Nanchang.
Wen was succeeded by his son Di Yi.
Battle of Yiwulu: A punitive Han expedition against the Xiongnu captured territory in the area of modern Hami City.
Wang Wei died.
Yesün Temür became emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Jinan Incident: The Japanese general Hikosuke Fukuda tortured and killed seventeen of Chiang's representatives in Jinan.
Ming died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Zhang of Han.
Lu Yu composed The Classic of Tea.
Zhongyuan Yinyun was published.
Huanggutun incident: Zhang Zuolin's train was blown up by the Japanese Kwantung Army, killing him.
Di was succeeded as king of the Shang dynasty by his son King Zhou of Shang.
Wang Chong correctly theorized the nature of the water cycle.
Yangzhou massacre (760): Arab and Persian merchants are killed by Chinese rebels.
Yesün Temür died.
Chiang became chairman of the Nationalist government of the Republic of China.
King Wen of Zhou died.
Yuan An was appointed situ.
Suzong died of a heart attack.
Yesün Temür's son Ragibagh Khan was appointed emperor of the Yuan dynasty in Shangdu.
Encirclement Campaign against Northeastern Jiangxi Soviet: The NRA encircled and invested the Northeastern Jiangxi Soviet.
Zhou took Daji as his concubine.
Zhang died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor He of Han.
Suzong's son Emperor Daizong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
The Yuan general El Temür crowned Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür emperor in Khanbaliq.
China floods: Flooding began in the valleys of the Yellow, Yangtze and Huai Rivers, which would claim as many as four million lives. As of 2019, it was the deadliest natural disaster ever recorded.
Battle of Muye: The forces of the predynastic Zhou, led by King Wu of Zhou and aided by Shang dynasty defectors, dealt a bloody defeat to Shang forces at Muye, near Yinxu.
Battle of the Altai Mountains: Han and allied forces defeated the army of the Northern Chanyu and accepted the surrender of two hundred thousand Xiongnu soldiers in the Altai Mountains.
Du Huan wrote the Jingxingji.
Forces loyal to El Temür captured Shangdu and may have executed Ragibagh.
Mukden Incident: In a false flag operation against the Republic of China, Japanese agents set off a dynamite explosion near a South Manchuria Railway line.
Zhou committed suicide by burning himself with his jewels on the Deer Terrace Pavilion.
The Han general Ban Chao sent the envoy Gan Ying to the outskirts of the Roman Empire.
An Lushan Rebellion: The Yan emperor Shi Chaoyi committed suicide in flight from Tang forces.
Tugh Temür's brother Khutughtu Khan Kusala crowned himself emperor of the Yuan dynasty in Karakorum with the support of the Chagatai Khanate.
Japanese invasion of Manchuria: The Kwantung Army invested all Manchurian territory along the South Manchuria Railway.
Xu Shen completed the Shuowen Jiezi.
Tugh Temür abdicated in Khutughtu's favor.
The Chinese Soviet Republic was established in Ruijin.
Wu was succeeded by his son King Cheng of Zhou.
Cai Lun invented papermaking.
Daizong's son Emperor Dezong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Khutughtu died, probably after being poisoned by Tugh Temür.
Chiang resigned under pressure from the KMT. Lin Sen became acting chairman of the Nationalist government.
Chinese bronze inscriptions came into use.
The Nestorian Stele was composed.
Tugh Temür was crowned emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Lin Sen became chairman of the Nationalist government.
He's infant son Emperor Shang of Han was made emperor of Han with empress dowager Deng Sui acting as regent.
Han Gan died.
The Pagoda of Bailin Temple was completed.
January 28 Incident: Japanese aircraft carriers began bombing Shanghai in a series of raids which would kill some four thousand soldiers of the 19th Route Army and as many as twenty thousand Chinese civilians.
Cheng was succeeded by his son King Kang of Zhou.
The Tang official Jia Dan began work on a map of Tang and its former colonies.
Tugh Temür died.
Defense of Harbin: Japanese bombs and artillery forced the Jilin Self-Defence Army to retreat from Harbin.
The Classic of Poetry was compiled.
Shang's young cousin Emperor An of Han became emperor, with Deng Sui continuing to act as regent.
Prince Li Gao ordered the construction of the first Chinese paddle-wheel ships.
El Temür crowned Khutughtu's young son Rinchinbal Khan emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
The independent state of Manchukuo was established on the territory of Japanese-occupied Manchuria.
Ban Zhao completed the Book of Han.
Du You completed the Tongdian.
Pacification of Manchukuo: The Big Swords Society rebelled en masse against the government of Manchukuo.
King Mu of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Zhang Heng completed a star catalogue which also argued for a spherical moon that reflects light.
Rinchinbal's older brother Toghon Temür became emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling established the quasi-fascist New Life Movement.
Mu led an unsuccessful expedition against the Quanrong.
Zhang invented the first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere.
Dezong's son Emperor Shunzong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Wang Dayuan travelled to North Africa.
Long March: The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army broke through the KMT lines attempting to encircle them at Ganzhou.
Mu died. He was succeeded by his son King Gong of Zhou.
The earliest known Chinese depiction of a mechanical distance-marking odometer was drawn.
Shunzong abdicated in favor of his son Emperor Xianzong of Tang.
Papal missionary Giovanni de Marignolli leaves Europe for Khanbaliq (Beijing).
Japan opened a biological warfare operation called Unit 731 in Manchukuo.
Xianzong launched the first of a series of military campaigns against the provinces.
Red Turban Rebellion: The millenarian White Lotus sect first plotted armed rebellion against the Yuan dynasty.
First Encirclement Campaign against Hubei–Henan–Shaanxi Soviet: Red Army forces forced the retreat of a KMT army attempting to encircle the soviet of Hubei, Henan and Shaanxi.
Gong's son Ji Jian, King Yi of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The Marquess of Beixiang became emperor of the Han dynasty.
Xianzong died, possibly after being poisoned by one of his eunuch officers.
Red Turban Rebellion: The Hongwu Emperor joined the rebellion.
December 9th Movement: A student protest took place in Beijing demanding internal liberalization and stronger anti-Japanese resistance.
Ji Jian died.
The Marquess of Beixiang died.
Xianzong's son Emperor Muzong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Red Turban Rebellion: The rebel army captured Nanjing.
Xi'an Incident: Zhang Xueliang arrested Chiang in Xi'an due to concerns he was insufficiently committed to anti-Japanese resistance.
Ji Jian's uncle, Mu's son King Xiao of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
An's son Emperor Shun of Han became emperor of the Han dynasty.
Battle of Lake Poyang: A Red Turban fleet commanded by the Hongwu Emperor met a fleet led by Chen Youliang, the self-proclaimed king of the rebel state of Han, on Poyang Lake.
Marco Polo Bridge Incident: Roughly one hundred Chinese soldiers were killed defending the Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing from a Japanese attack.
Zhang invented a seismometer capable of indicating the direction of earthquakes.
Muzong's young son Emperor Jingzong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Battle of Lake Poyang: The Han navy was destroyed. Chen Youliang was killed.
The KMT and CPC joined to establish the Second United Front. The Red Army was reorganized into the Eighth Route and New Fourth Armies, which were nominally part of the NRA chain of command.
Ji Jian's son Ji Xie, King Yi of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Cai Yong was born.
Han Yu died.
Red Turban Rebellion: The Hongwu Emperor declared himself emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Battle of Pingxingguan: The Eighth Route Army wiped out a Japanese force of a few hundred attempting to bring supplies through Pingxing Pass.
Ji Xie died.
The Cantong qi was published.
Jingzong was assassinated.
Toghon Temür fled Khanbaliq for Shangdu in the face of a Ming advance.
Battle of Shanghai: The NRA began withdrawing from downtown Shanghai in the face of a Japanese onslaught.
Ji Xie's son King Li of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Shun died. He was succeeded by his infant son Emperor Chong of Han, with empress dowager Liang Na and her brother Liang Ji acting as regents.
Jingzong's brother Emperor Wenzong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Ming implemented the haijin, a ban on all private maritime commerce.
Battle of Nanking: The Japanese Central China Area Army launched a full-scale assault on Nanjing.
A popular revolt forced Li into exile near Linfen.
An Uyghur sued the son of a Tang general for failure to repay a debt.
The Hongwu Emperor abolished the imperial examination in favor of a recommendation system for appointing local Ming officials.
Nanking massacre: Nanjing fell to the Japanese Central China Area Army. A six-week massacre began in which tens of thousands of women were raped and as many as three hundred thousand civilians were killed.
The Gonghe Regency came into power.
Chong's young third cousin Emperor Zhi of Han became emperor of the Han dynasty, with Liang Na acting as regent.
The Temple of the Six Banyan Trees was rebuilt.
Bombing of Chongqing: The Japanese army and naval air services began a bombing campaign against civilian targets in Chongqing which would kill some ten thousand people.
Liang Ji poisoned Zhi, killing him.
Wenzong's brother Emperor Wuzong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Liu Bowen died.
Battle of Taierzhuang: The Japanese army was forced to withdraw after suffering heavy losses in an attempted conquest of Tai'erzhuang District.
Li's son King Xuan of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Emperor Huan of Han became emperor of the Han dynasty.
A large fire consumed four thousand buildings in an eastern neighborhood of the Tang capital Chang'an.
The Hongwu Emperor abolished the office of chancellor and took over direct control of the Three Departments and Six Ministries.
Yellow River flood: KMT forces destroyed a major dyke in an effort to create a flood to slow down Japanese forces. Nearly a million citizens died.
Lokaksema was born.
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution: Wuzong abolished Buddhist monasteries as well as establishments of Zoroastrianism and Christianity, which were thought to be Buddhist heresies.
Ming conquest of Yunnan: Basalawarmi, the prince of Liang and a Yuan loyalist, committed suicide during a massive Ming invasion of Yunnan.
The nominally independent Mengjiang was established on the Mongol territories of the Japanese-occupied Chahar and Suiyuan provinces.
Xuan's son King You of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The Buddhist missionary An Shigao arrived in China.
The Jinyiwei was established and given supreme judicial authority and complete autonomy in making arrests and issuing punishments.
Battle of Changsha: The Japanese army attacked Changsha.
You took Bao Si as his concubine.
Sino-Roman relations: A Roman envoy arrived at the Han capital Luoyang.
Wuzong's uncle, Xianzong's son Emperor Xuānzong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
The Hongwu Emperor reinstituted the imperial examination.
Hundred Regiments Offensive: Communist NRA soldiers under Peng Dehuai began a campaign of terrorism and sabotage against Japanese targets in North China.
The Marquess of Shen, whose daughter had replaced by Bao Si as queen, led an attack on Haojing in alliance with the Quanrong. You and Bao's son Bofu were killed.
Disasters of the Partisan Prohibitions: Several ministers and some two hundred university students, who had opposed the influence of corrupt eunuchs at the royal court, were arrested.
Bai Juyi died.
A legal code based on the Tang Code was implemented in Ming.
The Communist official Mao Zedong gave a speech in Yan'an entitled "Reform in Learning, the Party and Literature," establishing the Yan'an Rectification Movement and beginning an ideological purge which would claim some ten thousand lives.
You's son King Ping of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The Arab merchant Sulaiman al-Tajir visited Guangzhou.
The Hongwu Emperor died.
Battle of Changsha: A Japanese army began a general retreat after failing to take Changsha.
Ping moved the Zhou capital east to Luoyang.
Emperor Ling of Han became emperor of the Han dynasty.
Du Mu died.
The Hongwu Emperor's young grandson the Jianwen Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Battle of Changsha: A Japanese army crossed the Xinqiang River after suffering heavy losses in a failed attempt to conquer Changsha.
Cai Wenji was born.
Duan Chengshi published the Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang.
Jingnan Campaign: Forces loyal to the Jianwen Emperor's uncle the Yongle Emperor entered the capital Nanjing and burned the imperial palace with the Jianwen Emperor inside.
Lin Sen died. Chiang became acting chairman of the Nationalist government.
Ping's grandson King Huan of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The earliest known reference to The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art appeared.
A flood along the Grand Canal and on the North China Plain killed tens of thousands.
The Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum was completed.
Cairo Conference: Chiang, United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British prime minister Winston Churchill issued the Cairo Declaration, under which the three powers expressed their desire for the independence of Korea and the return of Chinese territories.
Battle of Xuge: Huan, in coalition with the Zhou vassal states Chen, Cai and Wey, led a punitive expedition against Zheng. The coalition was defeated and Huan was wounded.
Ding Huan invented the rotary fan.
Construction began on the Forbidden City and Beijing city fortifications.
Battle of Changsha: The Japanese army launched a general offensive against Changsha.
Yellow Turban Rebellion: The Taoist sect leader Zhang Jue called on his followers in the Han provinces to rebel against the government.
Xuānzong's son Emperor Yizong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
The Kagyu karmapa Deshin Shekpa, 5th Karmapa Lama arrived at the Ming capital Nanjing.
The United Nations Charter establishing the United Nations (UN) was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center by fifty nations including China.
Huan's son King Zhuang of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Liang Province Rebellion: The Qiang people launched a rebellion against Han authority in the area of modern Wuwei.
Duan Chengshi published a work describing the slave trade, ivory trade and ambergris trade in Bobali, probably modern Berbera.
Ming–Hồ War: Ming forces captured the Hồ king Hồ Hán Thương.
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: As many as eighty thousand Japanese, largely civilians, were killed in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima by a United States aircraft.
Duke Huan of Qi became duke of Qi.
Zhi Yao first translated Buddhist texts into Chinese.
The Diamond Sutra was printed.
The Yongle Encyclopedia was completed.
Surrender of Japan: Japanese forces in China formally surrendered to Chiang Kai-shek.
Restoration work on the Grand Canal was completed.
Surrender of Japan: China regains control of Taiwan from Japan and was proclaimed as Retrocession Day. Chen Yi of the Kuomintang was appointed Chief Executive.
Zhuang's son King Xi of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Ling's son Liu Bian became emperor of the Han dynasty.
Yizong's son Emperor Xizong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Construction of the Forbidden City and Beijing city fortifications was completed. The Yongle Emperor moved the Ming capital from Nanjing to Beijing.
Campaign to Suppress Bandits in Northeast China: The Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) launched a campaign against bandits and KMT guerillas in northeast China.
Forces loyal to the warlords Yuan Shao and Yuan Shu massacred some two thousand eunuchs in the Han capital Luoyang.
Wang Xianzhi launched a rebellion against the Tang government.
The Ming tombs were built.
Chinese Civil War: The NRA invaded PLA-held territory en masse.
Xi's son King Hui of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The Han general Dong Zhuo deposed Liu Bian as emperor and appointed his brother Emperor Xian of Han in his stead.
Guangzhou massacre: The rebel Huang Chao burned and looted Guangzhou and killed as many as two hundred thousand foreigners, mainly Arabs and Persians.
The Yongle Emperor died.
February 28 Incident: Nationalist forces violently suppressed an anti-government protest in Taiwan Province.
Campaign against Dong Zhuo: A coalition led by Yuan Shao gathered at Hangu Pass in anticipation of an expedition against Dong.
Huang was murdered with his immediate family while in flight from Tang forces.
The Yongle Emperor's son the Hongxi Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
The Constitution of the Republic of China came into force, dissolving the Nationalist government and renaming the NRA the Republic of China (ROC) Armed Forces.
Hui's son King Xiang of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Dong was assassinated by his foster son Lü Bu.
Xizong died. He was succeeded by his brother Emperor Zhaozong of Tang.
The Hongxi Emperor died, probably from a heart attack.
Liaoshen Campaign: The last ROC garrison in Manchuria, in Yingkou, retreated in the face of a PLA advance.
The Qi chancellor Guan Zhong died.
Sun Ce's conquests in Jiangdong: The warlord Sun Ce attacked and conquered territory administered by Lu Kang.
Zhaozong was killed on the orders of the warlord Zhu Wen, then in control of the Tang capital Chang'an.
Treasure voyages: The Yongle Emperor ordered a fleet of Chinese treasure ships under the command of the admiral Zheng He to reestablish tributary relationships with states in the South China Sea and Indian Ocean.
Huaihai Campaign: The PLA encircled an ROC army in Xuzhou.
Battle of Chengpu: Jin and its allies decisively defeated a coalition led by Chu.
War between Cao Cao and Zhang Xiu almost take Cao Cao's life. Cao Cao's oldest son perished in the battle, but Zhang Xiu later (199) surrendered to Cao Cao to face Yuan Shao together.
Zhu Wen appointed Zhaozong's young son Emperor Ai of Tang emperor of the Tang dynasty.
The Hongxi Emperor's son the Xuande Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Chiang resigned the presidency of the Republic of China due to military failures and under pressure from his vice president Li Zongren, who succeeded him as acting president.
Sunshu Ao was born.
Battle of Xiapi: The allied forces of the warlords Cao Cao and Liu Bei defeated an army loyal to Lü Bu in Xuzhou.
The Khitan chieftain Abaoji became emperor of the Liao dynasty.
Shen Zhou was born.
Pingjin Campaign: The PLA took Beijing.
Battle of Guandu: Forces loyal to Cao Cao dealt a bloody defeat to Yuan Shao near the confluence of the Bian and Yellow Rivers.
Zhu Wen deposed Ai and declared himself emperor of Later Liang. The princes Yang Wo and Wang Jian, who did not recognize Zhu Wen, became de facto independent, as did their states Wu and Former Shu, respectively.
Ming recognized the Lê dynasty as a tributary state.
Chinese Civil War: The PLA conquered the ROC capital Nanjing. The ROC moved its capital to Guangzhou.
Xiang's son King Qing of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The warlord Gongsun Kang established the Daifang Commandery on the Korean Peninsula.
Zhu Wen created Qian Liu the prince of Wuyue.
The Xuande Emperor died.
Mao declared the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Battle of Red Cliffs: Forces loyal to the warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan decisively repelled Cao Cao in an attempted invasion across the Yangtze River.
Zhu Wen created Ma Yin, the jiedushi of the Wu'an Circuit, prince of Chu.
The Xuande Emperor's son the Zhengtong Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
The ROC moved its capital from Chengdu to Taipei.
Qing's son King Kuang of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Battle of Tong Pass: Cao Cao defeated an alliance of anti-Han rebels in modern Tongguan County, securing his control over Guanzhong.
Zhu Wen created Wang Shenzhi prince of Min.
The Zhihua Temple was built.
After 10 December 1949, the history of the Republic of China continues at Timeline of Taiwanese history.
Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province: Liu Zhang, the governor of Yi Province in modern Sichuan and Chongqing, surrendered Chengdu to Liu Bei.
The earliest Chinese reference to Greek fire appeared.
The Precious Belt Bridge was rebuilt.
Landing Operation on Hainan Island: Chinese forces landed on ROC-controlled Hainan.
Kuang's brother King Ding of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Battle of Xiaoyao Ford: A plague outbreak forced Sun Quan to abandon the attempted conquest from Cao Cao of a fortress at Hefei.
Liu Yan declared himself emperor of Southern Han.
Tumu Crisis: A Four Oirat force defeated a vastly superior Ming army at Tumu in modern Huailai County and captured the Zhengtong Emperor.
Korean War: The North Korean army launched a 135,000-man surprise assault across the 38th parallel into South Korea.
Knife money came into use.
Battle of Han River: Liu Bei ambushed and dealt a bloody defeat to Cao Cao's army in Hanzhong.
The flamethrower was first described in China.
The Zhengtong Emperor's brother the Jingtai Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River: The Chinese 38th Group Army broke the UN line between the 7th Infantry Division and 8th Infantry Division in the valley of the Chongchon River.
Battle of Bi: Chu decisively defeated Jin at Bi, near modern Xingyang.
Battle of Fancheng: Cao Cao repelled an attack by Liu Bei's general Guan Yu in modern Fancheng District, at great cost to both sides.
Prince Li Cunxu of Jin declared himself emperor of Later Tang.
The Zhengtong Emperor overthrew the Jingtai Emperor in a coup and took power as the Tianshun Emperor.
Mass executions of political prisoners took place in the Canidrome.
Lü Meng's invasion of Jing Province: Liu Bei's generals Shi Ren and Mi Fang defected to Sun Quan, surrendering to his general Lü Meng the main defense posts of Jingzhou.
The Later Liang emperor Zhu Youzhen was killed by one of his generals at the approach of Li Cunxu to his capital Daliang.
Rebellion of Cao Qin: An uprising of Mongol soldiers in the Ming capital Beijing, led by the general Cao Qin, was crushed.
Representatives of the Dalai Lama of Tibet the 14th Dalai Lama and of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China signed the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, which guaranteed Tibetan autonomy within China and called for the integration of the Tibetan Army into the PLA.
Ding's son King Jian of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Liu Bei declared himself emperor of Shu Han.
Gao Jixing declared himself king of Jingnan.
The Zhengtong Emperor died.
The five-anti campaign, which encouraged accusations against the bourgeoisie of crimes such as bribery and tax evasion, was founded. see Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns
Battle of Yanling: A numerically superior Chu force was defeated by Jin in modern Yanling County. King Gong of Chu was injured.
Battle of Xiaoting: The Shu Han generals Wu Ban and Feng Xi attacked and destroyed an Eastern Wu army at Wu Gorge.
The Former Shu emperor Wang Zongyan surrendered to the Later Tang army at his capital Chengdu.
The Zhengtong Emperor's son the Chenghua Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
The first of the five-year plans of China, which called for construction of heavy industry, began to be carried out.
Sun Quan declared himself king of Eastern Wu.
The Miao and Yao peoples rebelled against Ming authority in Guangxi.
An outbreak of the Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 occurred in China.
Jian's son King Ling of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Battle of Xiaoting: Eastern Wu forces attacked and burned the Shu Han camps and dealt serious casualties during their retreat.
Abaoji's son Emperor Taizong of Liao became emperor of the Liao dynasty.
The Zhenjue Temple was completed.
Mao published a speech entitled "On the Correct Handling of the Contradictions Among the People," marking the founding of the Hundred Flowers Campaign which encouraged criticism of the government and the Communist Party.
Confucius was born.
Liu Bei died. He was succeeded by his son Liu Shan, with Li Yan and chancellor Zhuge Liang acting as regents.
Meng Zhixiang, the Later Tang jiedushi of the territory of the defunct Former Shu, declared himself emperor of Later Shu.
The Chenghua Emperor died.
Mao instigated the Anti-Rightist Movement during which hundreds of thousands of alleged rightists, including many who had criticized the government during the Hundred Flowers Campaign, were purged from the CPC or sentenced to labor or death.
The earliest surviving reference to Go appeared.
Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign: The rebel leader Meng Huo surrendered Nanzhong to Zhuge Liang.
Taizong recognized the Shatuo Later Tang general Shi Jingtang emperor of Later Jin in exchange for the promised cession of the Sixteen Prefectures that formed a natural border around the North China Plain.
The Chenghua Emperor's son the Hongzhi Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Great Leap Forward: The CPC led campaigns to massively overhaul the Chinese economy and society with such innovations as collective farming and the use of backyard furnaces.
Cao Pi died. He was succeeded by Cao Rui, who may have been his son or his wife Lady Zhen's by a previous marriage to Yuan Xi.
The Later Tang emperor Li Congke burned himself to death with his family and servants as the joint armies of Liao and Later Jin approached his capital Luoyang.
The Joseon official Choe Bu suffered a shipwreck in Zhejiang.
Mao launched the Four Pests Campaign, which encouraged the eradication of rats, flies, mosquitos and sparrows.
Ling's son Ji Gui, King Jing of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Battle of Jieting: Cao Wei forces encircled and destroyed a Shu Han army guarding the supply line for an invasion in modern Qin'an County.
The Wu emperor Yang Pu was deposed by his general Li Bian, who declared himself emperor of the Wu successor state of Southern Tang.
The Hongzhi Emperor died.
Tibetan uprising: A rebellion broke out in the Tibetan regional capital Lhasa after rumors the government was planning to arrest the 14th Dalai Lama at the local PLA headquarters.
The Chinese people were first divided into a caste system of four occupations.
Battle of Shiting: A Cao Wei army was lured into an ambush by Eastern Wu in modern Qianshan County and dealt heavy casualties on its retreat.
Min was conquered and annexed by Southern Tang.
The Hongzhi Emperor's son the Zhengde Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Great Chinese Famine: A famine began which would claim as many as forty million lives over three years.
The Zheng prime minister Zichan established the state's first written civil code.
Cao Zhi died.
The Later Jin emperor Shi Chonggui was deposed and his territory annexed by the Liao dynasty.
Prince of Anhua rebellion: Ming tax collectors were murdered on the orders of Zhu Zhifan, the prince of Anhua in modern Shaanxi.
Sino-Soviet split: A CPC newspaper accused the Soviet leadership of "revisionism."
Ji Gui died. He was succeeded by his son King Dao of Zhou.
Battle of Wuzhang Plains: Shu Han forces made an orderly retreat from Cao Wei forces on the Wuzhang Plains after Zhuge Liang fell ill and died.
The Shatuo Liu Zhiyuan, a jiedushi of the defunct Later Jin, declared himself emperor of Later Han.
Capture of Malacca: A Portuguese invasion force conquered the Malacca Sultanate.
Sino-Indian War: The PLA attacked Indian forces across the Line of Actual Control.
Dao was murdered by his brother.
Cao Rui died. He was succeeded by his young adopted son Cao Fang, with Cao Shuang and Sima Yi acting as regents.
The Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares arrived on Lintin Island in the Pearl River Delta.
Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung was first published.
Dao's brother Ji Gai, King Jing of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Battle of Xingshi: Shu Han forces stalled a Cao Wei invasion at Mount Xingshi in the modern Changqing National Nature Reserve.
Taizong's nephew Emperor Shizong of Liao, whom he had raised, became emperor of the Liao dynasty.
The Portuguese explorer Rafael Perestrello arrived in Guangzhou.
596: The Chinese government detonated its first nuclear weapon at Lop Nur.
The Wu king King Liao of Wu was killed by the assassin Zhuan Zhu.
Jiang Wei's Northern Expeditions: Cao Wei pushed back an invasion by the Shu Han general Jiang Wei across the Tao River.
The earliest known depiction of a fire lance and lobbed grenade appeared.
The Portuguese ambassadors Fernão Pires de Andrade and Tomé Pires arrived in Guangzhou.
The second of two volumes of Simplified Chinese characters ordered by the State Council of the People's Republic of China was published.
King Helü of Wu became king of Wu.
Eastern Wu forces killed the Vietnamese rebel Lady Triệu.
The Later Han emperor Liu Chengyou was killed by one of his officers while attempting to escape the siege of the capital Ye by his general Guo Wei.
Prince of Ning rebellion: The prince of Ning Zhu Chenhao declared that the Zhengde Emperor was an usurper and led an expedition toward Nanjing.
Cultural Revolution: The CPC launched a campaign to destroy the Four Olds.
Battle of Boju: Wu decisively defeated a numerically superior Chu force at Boju.
Incident at Gaoping Tombs: Sima Yi took control of the Cao Wei capital Luoyang during Cao Fang and Cao Shuang's absence.
Guo Wei declared himself emperor of Later Zhou.
The Zhengde Emperor died.
The Three-Self Patriotic Movement, the sole government-sanctioned Protestant church, was abolished.
Cast iron was first invented in China.
Sun Quan died. He was succeeded by his young son Sun Liang, with the general Zhuge Ke acting as regent.
Shizong was murdered by one of his officers.
The Zhengde Emperor's cousin, the Chenghua Emperor's grandson the Jiajing Emperor, became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Deng Pufang was thrown from a third-story window at Peking University by Red Guards, crippling him.
The Wu king King Fuchai of Wu ordered the building of the Han Canal.
Sima Yi's son, the regent Sima Shi, deposed Cao Fang, who was succeeded by Cao Pi's grandson Cao Mao.
Shizong's cousin, Taizong's son Emperor Muzong of Liao became emperor of the Liao dynasty.
The Jiajing Emperor expelled the Portuguese embassy.
The People's Daily published an editorial entitled "We too have two hands, let us not laze about in the city," invigorating the Down to the Countryside Movement under which the sent-down youth, many former Red Guards, were relocated from the cities to the country.
Wu Zixu died.
Ma Jun invented the south-pointing chariot.
Southern Tang conquered and annexed Chu.
Wang Yangming died.
Sino-Soviet border conflict: PLA forces attacked the Soviet Border Troops of the Soviet Union on Zhenbao Island, killing 59.
The Yue king King Goujian of Yue captured the Wu capital in a surprise assault.
Sun Liang was deposed by the regent Sun Chen.
Liu Zhiyuan's brother Liu Chong declared himself declared himself emperor of Northern Han.
An improved sand-driven mechanical clock was invented.
The Beijing Subway opened in Beijing.
Ji Gai died.
Sun Liang's brother Sun Xiu was made emperor of Eastern Wu.
Gu Hongzhong painted the Night Revels of Han Xizai.
Portuguese trade ships first stopped at Shangchuan Island.
China launched Dong Fang Hong I, its first satellite.
Ji Gai's son King Yuan of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Coup of Cao Mao: Cao Mao was murdered in a failed attempt to kill the regent Sima Zhao at his residence.
Emperor Guo Zongxun of Later Zhou was overthrown by his general Emperor Taizu of Song.
The Mongol chieftain Altan Khan burned and looted the Ming capital Beijing and its suburbs.
United States secretary of state Henry Kissinger visited Beijing.
Wu was annexed by Yue.
Cao Cao's grandson Cao Huan was made emperor of Cao Wei.
Taizu became emperor of the Song dynasty.
The Ming capital Beijing was expanded to the south, increasing its size from four to four and a half square miles.
Cultural Revolution: Lin Biao dies in mysterious air crash after failed coup.
Mozi was born.
Conquest of Shu by Wei: The Cao Wei general Deng Ai accepted the surrender of the Shu Han emperor Liu Shan outside the capital Chengdu.
Taizu was presented with gunpowder-impregnated fire arrows.
The Luso-Chinese agreement (1554) for Macau is made between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Ming dynasty.
China and the United Nations: The People's Republic of China is admitted to the United Nations, replacing the Republic of China.
Liu Hui published a revised version of The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art.
The Hundred Family Surnames was composed.
Shaanxi earthquake: An earthquake in and around modern Shaanxi killed some eight hundred thousand people.
Nixon visit to China: The United States and China issued the Shanghai Communiqué pledging to normalize relations during the visit of the former's president Richard Nixon.
Yuan's son King Zhending of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Sun Xiu died.
The Huqiu Tower was built.
The Kingdom of Portugal established a permanent settlement in Macau.
Battle of the Paracel Islands: Some fifty South Vietnamese soldiers were killed in a Chinese conquest of the Paracel Islands.
Sun Quan's grandson Sun Hao was made emperor of Eastern Wu.
The Song dynasty conquered and annexed Jingnan.
Ming forces led by Qi Jiguang dealt the wokou a defeat at Cengang.
The premier Zhou Enlai died.
Zhending died. He was succeeded by his son King Ai of Zhou.
Cao Wei instituted the nine-rank system of civil servants.
The Later Shu emperor Meng Chang surrendered to the Song army at his capital Chengdu.
The Jiajing Emperor died.
Tiananmen Incident: Some four thousand people were arrested during a protest against the removal of wreaths, flowers and poems laid at the Monument to the People's Heroes in Zhou's memory.
Ai was murdered and succeeded as king by his younger brother King Si of Zhou.
Sima Zhao died. His eldest son and heir, Sima Yan, inherited his position as regent of Cao Wei and noble title of King of Jin.
Muzong was murdered by his servants on a hunting trip.
The Jiajing Emperor's son the Longqing Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Tangshan earthquake: An earthquake with its epicenter near Tangshan killed roughly a quarter of a million people.
Si was murdered by his brother King Kao of Zhou.
Pei Xiu introduced the grid reference and the concept of scale to Chinese mapmaking.
Shizong's son Emperor Jingzong of Liao became emperor of the Liao dynasty.
The Ming haijin (ban on private maritime commerce) was repealed.
Kao became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Cao Huan, last emperor of Cao Wei, abdicated in favour of Sima Yan.
Southern Han was conquered and annexed by the Song dynasty.
The Longqing Emperor died.
The Gang of Four, a political faction including Mao's wife Jiang Qing, was arrested on the orders of the premier Hua Guofeng.
The tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng was constructed.
Sima Yan formally enthroned himself as Emperor of Jin, establishing the Jin dynasty. Sima Yan is posthumously known as Emperor Wu of Jin.
Song troops constructed a floating pontoon bridge across the Yangtze River in order to secure supply lines while fighting against the Southern Tang.
The Longqing Emperor's son the Wanli Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Hua became Chairman of the Communist Party of China.
Emperor Wu of Jin established his wife Yang Yan as Empress.
Song forces conquered and annexed Southern Tang.
Spain established a permanent base at Manila.
Beijing Spring: A brief period of political liberalization began.
Kao's son King Weilie of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Emperor Wu of Jin established his oldest living son, the developmentally disabled Sima Zhong, as Heir.
Qin Liangyu was born.
The poet Huang Xiang pasted pro-democracy, anti-Mao poems on the Democracy Wall in Beijing.
Partition of Jin: Weilie recognized the Jin nobles Marquess Wen of Wei, Marquess Lie of Zhao and Marquess Jing of Han as marquesses, granting de jure independence from Jin to the states of Wei, Zhao and Han.
Conquest of Wu by Jin: Sun Hao presented himself as a prisoner to the Jin general Wang Jun.
Taizu's brother Emperor Taizong of Song became emperor of the Song dynasty.
The Pagoda of Cishou Temple was built.
The Communist official Deng Xiaoping became paramount leader of China.
Chen Shou compiled the Records of the Three Kingdoms.
The Yuelu Academy was founded.
The Wanshou Temple was built.
Chinese economic reform: Economic liberalization measures including the replacement of collective farming with the household-responsibility system began to be instituted.
Weilie's son King An of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Emperor Wu died. He was succeeded by his developmentally disabled son Emperor Hui of Jin, with Yang Jun acting as regent.
The pagoda of the Longhua Temple was built.
The grand secretary Zhang Juzheng instituted the single whip law, under which all monetary and labor obligations to the central government were consolidated into a single silver payment.
Deng Xiaoping first advocated for the Four Modernizations, of agriculture, industry, national defense and science and technology.
Gan De was born.
War of the Eight Princes: Hui's wife Jia Nanfeng invited troops loyal to his brother Sima Wei into the Jin capital Luoyang to imprison the empress dowager Empress Yang Zhi and her relatives.
The Taiping Guangji was completed.
Jesuit China missions: The Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci arrived in Macau.
China and the United States issued the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, under which the latter recognized the PRC as the legitimate government of China and terminated its participation in the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty with Taiwan.
Shi Shen was born.
The Xiongnu noble Liu Yuan declared himself prince of Former Zhao.
The Wuyue king Qian Chu surrendered his territory to Taizong.
Private newspapers were first published in Beijing.
Sino-Vietnamese War: China declared that the punitive objective of its invasion of Vietnam had been achieved and began to retreat.
The earliest surviving Chinese maps appeared.
The Di warlord Li Xiong declared himself prince of Cheng Han.
The Northern Han emperor Liu Jiyuan surrendered to Song.
The earliest known depiction of the sailing carriage appeared.
Deng Xiaoping declared in a speech the Four Cardinal Principles not subject to debate within China.
The first Chinese star catalogue was compiled.
Hui was poisoned, probably by the regent Sima Yue.
Battle of Bạch Đằng: A Song naval invasion of the Early Lê dynasty via the Bạch Đằng River was aborted after the land invasion was stalled.
Li Shizhen published the Compendium of Materia Medica.
The first of the Special Economic Zones of China, characterized by low regulation and the encouragement of foreign investment, were established.
The Zuo Zhuan was published.
Hui's brother Emperor Huai of Jin became emperor of the Jin dynasty.
Wu Cheng'en wrote Journey to the West.
Sino-Vietnamese conflicts 1979–90: Chinese forces began shelling the Vietnamese Cao Bằng Province.
The city of Handan was founded to serve as the Zhao capital.
Huai was kidnapped from the capital Luoyang by Former Zhao forces.
Jingzong's young son Emperor Shengzong of Liao became emperor, with his widow Empress Xiao Yanyan acting as regent.
Japanese invasions of Korea: Some two hundred thousand Japanese troops invaded Joseon.
The one-child policy, under which Chinese couples are heavily fined for additional children after their first, with some exceptions, came into force, and then phased out in 2015.
The Chu prime minister Wu Qi was murdered by nobles at the funeral of its king King Dao of Chu.
Goguryeo conquered and annexed the Lelang Commandery.
The Taiping Yulan was completed.
Siege of Pyongyang: A combined Ming-Joseon force drove the Japanese army from Pyongyang.
The Sino-British Joint Declaration, under which China and the United Kingdom agreed to the transfer of Hong Kong to China and the preservation there of democracy and capitalism under the one country, two systems model, was signed during the visit of the British prime minister Margaret Thatcher.
Huai was executed.
Qiao Weiyo invented the canal pound lock.
Siege of Ulsan: A combined Ming-Joseon force arrived at the Japanese-controlled Ulsan Japanese Castle.
Johnson South Reef Skirmish: The PLA took control of the Johnson South Reef after a short naval battle in which some seventy Vietnamese soldiers were killed.
An's son King Lie of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Huai's nephew Emperor Min of Jin became emperor of the Jin dynasty.
The Wenyuan Yinghua was completed.
Battle of Sacheon: A Japanese army under siege at Sacheon drove off a numerically superior Ming-Joseon force after the accidental explosion of the Ming powder cache.
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989: A crowd gathered at the Monument to the People's Heroes.
Zheng was annexed by Han.
Min surrendered to the Former Zhao general Liu Yao during a siege of the Jin capital Chang'an.
Fan Kuan was born.
Battle of Noryang: The allied navies of Ming and Joseon dealt heavy damage to a Japanese fleet attempting to break their blockade of Suncheon Japanese Castle.
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989: Anywhere from 1 to 5 thousand people brutally murdered in the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
Zhuang Zhou was born.
Emperor Yuan of Jin declared himself prince of Jin, with his capital at Jiankang.
First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War: Liao forces invaded Goryeo.
The Peony Pavilion was first performed at the Pavilion of Prince Teng.
Jiang Zemin became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.
Min was executed.
The Longkan Shoujian was completed.
The Dutch East India Company (VOC) began shipping Chinese ceramics to Europe.
Shanghai Stock Exchange re-opened on November 26 and began operation on December 19.
Lie's brother King Xian of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
The Jie warlord Shi Le declared himself prince of Later Zhao.
Taizong died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Zhenzong.
The grand secretary Gu Xiancheng reopened the Donglin Academy in Wuxi, establishing the Donglin movement.
The first McDonald's restaurant in mainland China opened in Beijing.
Duke Xiao of Qin became duke of Qin.
Zhang Mao issued a general pardon to the people of Former Liang.
The Chinese first used coke in place of charcoal for blast furnaces.
Euclid's Elements was first translated into Chinese.
Deng Xiaoping traveled south to reassert the economy policy.
Xiao's adviser Shang Yang implemented a legal code in Qin based on the Canon of Laws which established punishment for complicity in a crime, established a system of military ranks, and implemented policies encouraging the cultivation of unsettled land.
The first accurate tomb depiction of stirrups appeared.
Song signed the Chanyuan Treaty, under which it agreed to pay Liao an annual tribute in silk and silver.
Sancai Tuhui was published.
Wang–Koo summit took place in Singapore: the first public meeting between figures of non-governmental organization (NGO) since 1949.
Battle of Guiling: Wei laid siege to the Zhao capital Handan.
Yuan died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Ming of Jin.
The Guangyun was completed.
Jin Ping Mei was published.
Karamay fire: A fire at a theater in Karamay killed some three hundred people.
Battle of Guiling: The Wei army fled Handan in response to reports of a Qi attack on their capital Daliang and were defeated by Qi forces at Guiling, in modern Changyuan County.
The rebel Wang Dun died.
Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War: Liao captured the Goryeo general Gang Jo and burned the capital Kaesong.
The Zihui was compiled.
Deng Xiaoping died.
Battle of Maling: Qi dealt Wei a bloody defeat.
Ming died. He was succeeded by his young son Emperor Cheng of Jin.
An atlas of China was completed.
Nurhaci declared himself khan of the later Jin dynasty.
Hong Kong handover ceremony: A ceremony marked the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong to China from the United Kingdom under the terms of the Sino-British Joint Declaration.
The crossbow was first used in China.
The rebel Su Jun was defeated by the Jin generals Tao Kan and Wen Jiao.
Cefu Yuangui was completed.
All foreign Jesuits were expelled from the Ming imperial court and astronomy bureau.
The term Great Firewall was coined to describe the tools of Internet censorship in China.
Xiao died. He was succeeded by his son King Huiwen of Qin.
The Later Zhao general Shi Hu captured Shanggui in modern Tianshui and killed the Former Zhao emperor Liu Xi and his nobility.
Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War: Liao invaded Goryeo.
Battle of Sarhu: The last of four Ming armies was destroyed during a retreat from a punitive expedition against Nurhaci and the later Jin. Its commander Li Rubai committed suicide
China floods: China experienced massive flooding including floods of the Yangtze River, the Nen River, the Songhua River and the Pearl River. Chinese People's Liberation Army earned people's respects because of their heroic behaving against the floods.
Shang and his family were executed by dismemberment on charges of treason.
The Xianbei Murong Huang declared himself prince of Former Yan.
Battle of Kuju: Goryeo forces decisively defeated a retreating Liao army at Kuju, near modern Kusong.
Wang Fuzhi was born.
United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade: United States bombers under the command of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization accidentally bombed the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.
Cheng died. He was succeeded by his brother Emperor Kang of Jin.
The Wanli Emperor died.
The Chinese government declared the religious organization Falun Gong illegal.
Xian's son King Shenjing of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Kang died. He was succeeded by his infant son Emperor Mu of Jin.
Zhenzong's son Emperor Renzong of Song became emperor of the Song dynasty.
The Wanli Emperor's son the Taichang Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Transfer of sovereignty over Macau: Sovereignty over Macau was transferred from Portugal to China.
The Confucian Mencius became a Qi official.
The Jin general Huan Wen captured the Cheng Han capital Chengdu.
Shengzong died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Xingzong of Liao.
The Taichang Emperor died.
China passed Japan as the country with which the United States has the largest trade deficit.
Sun Bin died.
The Jin general and Di chief Fu Jian declared himself Tian Wang of Former Qin.
The Jiyun was published.
The Taichang Emperor's young son the Tianqi Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident: Five declared by Chinese government members of Falun Gong may have burned themselves to death in Tiananmen Square.
Shu was conquered and annexed by Qin.
The Later Zhao emperor Shi Zhi and his court were killed by one of his generals on the orders of the warlord Ran Min.
The Tangut chieftain Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia declared himself emperor of Western Xia.
The VOC established the state of Dutch Formosa.
Hainan Island incident: A United States intelligence aircraft was intercepted and forced to make an emergency landing on Hainan.
Ba was conquered and annexed by Qin.
Wang Xizhi wrote the Lantingji Xu.
Bi Sheng invented movable type.
Johann Adam Schall von Bell wrote the first Chinese language treatise on the telescope.
World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2001: China joined the World Trade Organization, subjecting it to that body's free trade and dispute resolution agreements.
Ouyang Xiu and the vice chancellor Fan Zhongyan drafted the Qingli Reforms in Song.
The Jesuit Nicolas Trigault invented the first system for the romanization of Chinese.
An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome began in Guangdong.
Shenjing's son King Nan of Zhou became king of the Zhou dynasty.
Mu's cousin Emperor Ai of Jin became emperor of the Jin dynasty.
The Wujing Zongyao was completed.
Battle of Ningyuan: A Ming force defended Xingcheng against a numerically superior later Jin army. Nurhaci suffered fatal wounds.
Hu Jintao succeeded Jiang Zemin as president.
Ai died. He was succeeded by his brother Emperor Fei of Jin.
The Lingxiao Pagoda was completed.
First Manchu invasion of Korea: Nurhaci's son Hong Taiji, the khan of the later Jin dynasty, invaded Joseon.
China launched its first manned space mission Shenzhou 5.
Huiwen's son King Wu of Qin became king of Qin.
Gu Kaizhi became a Jin officer.
Jingzong died. He was succeeded by his infant son Emperor Yizong of Western Xia.
The Tianqi Emperor died.
Jiang Zemin resigned his position as chairman of the Central Military Commission of the CPC.
Xun Kuang was born.
A Jin army led by Huan was annihilated as it retreated from the Former Yan capital Ye by the general Murong Chui.
The Iron Pagoda was completed.
The Tianqi Emperor's younger brother the Chongzhen Emperor became emperor of the Ming dynasty.
The Anti-Secession Law was passed, reasserting China's desire for peaceful reunification with Taiwan and its right to resolve the issue by force.
The Zhou king King Wuling of Zhao ordered his cavalry to begin wearing clothes fashioned after those of the Donghu and Xiongnu peoples.
The Former Yan emperor Murong Wei was captured by the Former Qin prime minister Wang Meng.
The Liaodi Pagoda was completed.
The eunuch Wei Zhongxian committed suicide on hearing that the Jinyiwei had issued a warrant for his arrest.
anti-Japanese demonstrations: Mass demonstrations against Japan took place.
Huan deposed Fei in favor of his granduncle Emperor Jianwen of Jin.
Xingzong died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Daozong of Liao.
The Zhengzitong was published.
Jilin chemical plant explosions: A series of explosions at a chemical plant in Jilin City killed six and forced the evacuation of tens of thousands.
Wu's brother King Zhaoxiang of Qin became king of Qin.
Jianwen died. He was succeeded by his young son Emperor Xiaowu of Jin.
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple was completed.
The Polish Jesuit Michał Boym first introduced the heliocentric model of the solar system into Chinese astronomy.
Chinese slave scandal: A local television station first reported on missing children kidnapped to work as slaves at brickyards in Shanxi.
Zou Yan was born. The Tsinghua Bamboo Slips were written.
Duke Zhang Tianxi of Former Liang surrendered to Former Qin.
Ouyang Xiu completed the New Book of Tang.
The later Jin dynasty conquered Inner Mongolia.
Zheng Xiaoyu, the former head of the State Food and Drug Administration, was executed for corruption.
Erya was published.
Battle of Fei River: A Jin army defeated a massively larger Former Qin force, inflicting some seven hundred thousand casualties and expanding Jin territory north to the Yellow River.
The Chongzhen Emperor acquired the telescope of the late Johann Schreck.
The State Administration for Religious Affairs issued State Religious Affairs Bureau Order No. 5, which required tulkus who planned to be reincarnated to submit an application to the government.
The Guodian Chu Slips were produced.
The Xianbei Former Qin general Murong Chui declared himself prince of Later Yan.
Emperor Yingzong of Song became emperor of the Song dynasty.
Liu Tong wrote a preface to the Dijing Jingwulue.
The lunar orbiter Chang'e 1 was launched.
Battle of Yique: Qin dealt a bloody defeat to a Wei-Han alliance.
The Former Qin general Yao Chang declared himself prince of Later Qin.
The Pizhi Pagoda was completed.
Second Manchu invasion of Korea: The Joseon king Injo of Joseon recognized Hong Taiji's Qing dynasty as the legitimate rulers of China.
Chinese winter storms: A series of severe winter storms began which would claim over a hundred lives.
Qin conquered the Chu capital Ying.
The Xianbei chief and Former Qin vassal Qifu Guoren joined an active rebellion and declared the independence of Western Qin.
Yizong died. He was succeeded by his young son Emperor Huizong of Western Xia.
Song Yingxing published the Tiangong Kaiwu.
The Hangzhou Bay Bridge opened to the public.
The Chu poet Qu Yuan wrote Lament for Ying and drowned himself in the Miluo River because he could not bear his exile any long or to his despair for the state of his fellow countrymen
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei declared himself prince of Northern Wei.
Yingzong died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Shenzong of Song.
The Peking Gazette first used moveable type.
Sichuan earthquake: An earthquake with its epicenter in Wenchuan County killed nearly seventy thousand people.
Battle of Changping: Zhao intercepted a Qin invasion of the commandery of Shangdang .
The Former Qin general Lü Guang declared himself Tian Wang of the majority-Di Later Liang.
The dry dock was first used in China.
Xu Guangqi published a treatise on agriculture.
Chinese milk scandal: Sixteen infants were diagnosed with kidney stones in Gansu after drinking formula contaminated with melamine.
Battle of Changping: Qin forces encircled the Zhao army, forcing its surrender. The Zhao general Zhao Kuo was killed in action.
The Former Qin emperor Fu Chong was killed and his territory annexed by Western Qin forces.
The Song chancellor Wang Anshi ordered an extensive government reform including the introduction of the baojia system of community-based law enforcement.
Chen Hongshou arrived in Beijing.
Summer Olympics opening ceremony: A ceremony marked the beginning of the Olympic Games in Beijing.
Battle of Changping: The captured Zhao soldiers were executed.
Xiaowu was suffocated by one of his concubines. He was succeeded by his young and severely disabled son Emperor An of Jin.
The Song ambassador Su Song published the Bencao Tujing.
Xu Xiake died.
Summer Paralympics: The thirteenth Paralympic Games began in Beijing.
Qin Shi Huang is Born.
Xiongnu rebels established the Northern Liang, with the Han Duan Ye as king.
Guo Xi painted Early Spring.
Yellow River flood: The Ming governor of Kaifeng destroyed the levees holding back the Yellow River in order to break the siege of the peasant army of Li Zicheng. The resulting flood destroyed Kaifeng and killed some three hundred thousand people.
The astronaut Zhai Zhigang completed China's first spacewalk on Shenzhou 7.
Nan submitted to Zhaoxiang and took the title Duke of West Zhou.
The Xianbei chief Tufa Wugu declared the independence of Southern Liang from Later Liang.
The Song diplomat Shen Kuo used court archives to reject Daozong's territorial claims.
A Han army was made the last of the Qing Eight Banners.
July Ürümqi riots: A riot of some thousand Uyghurs began which involved ethnic violence against the Han in Ürümqi.
Nan died. His territory was annexed by Qin.
Murong Chui's brother Murong De declared himself prince of Southern Yan.
A proto-Bessemer process was first observed in Cizhou.
Hong Taiji died.
60th anniversary of the People's Republic of China: A military parade on Chang'an Avenue in Beijing commemorated the establishment of the PRC.
The Dujiangyan irrigation system was built.
Faxian left for India to acquire Buddhist texts.
Su was sent on a mission to Liao.
Hong Taiji's young son the Shunzhi Emperor became emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Yushu earthquake: An earthquake with its epicenter in Yushu killed as many as three thousand people.
Six commanderies of Northern Liang seceded as Western Liang, under the kingship of the Han Li Gao.
Shen was appointed to defend Yan'an.
The Chongzhen Emperor hanged himself from the Zuihuai as the army of Li Zicheng's Shun dynasty breached the walls of the Ming capital Beijing.
ExpoA world's fair began in Shanghai.
The first drawings of the repeating crossbow appeared in Chu records.
Under military pressure from Southern Liang and Northern Liang, the Later Liang emperor Lü Long surrendered his capital Guzang, in modern Wuwei, to the Later Qin emperor Yao Xing.
A Song army was dealt some sixty thousand casualties defending Yan'an against an attempted invasion of Song by Western Xia forces.
Battle of Shanhai Pass: A Shun army was dealt a heavy defeat by the Qing and the former Ming general Wu Sangui at Shanhai Pass.
Wukan protests: Farmers in Wukan attacked a government building due to the government's seizure without compensation of their farmland.
Zhaoxiang's son King Xiaowen of Qin became king of Qin.
Huiyuan wrote On Why Monks Do Not Bow Down Before Kings, arguing for the independence of Buddhist clergy from the monarchy.
Su published a 200-volume work on Song-Liao relations.
Li Zicheng fled Beijing.
Tiangong-1 was launched as China's first prototype space station.
Xiaowen died. He was succeeded by his son King Zhuangxiang of Qin.
Tao Yuanming retired.
Sima Guang completed the Zizhi Tongjian.
Yangzhou massacre: Qing forces conquered Yangzhou from the Southern Ming. A ten-day massacre began in which some eight hundred thousand people would be killed.
Wang Lijun incident: Wang Lijun, a deputy of Bo Xilai, the Party Committee Secretary of Chongqing, sought refuge at a United States consulate.
Zhuangxiang died. He was succeeded by his son Qin Shi Huang.
The Later Yan emperor Murong Xi was beheaded by his adoptive nephew, the Korean people Gao Yun, who became emperor of the successor state of Northern Yan.
Li Qingzhao was born.
The 5th Dalai Lama, the Dalai Lama of Tibet, visited the Qing capital Beijing.
The Three Gorges Dam went into operation.
The Zhengguo Canal was completed by Zheng Guo of Qin.
The Later Qin general Helian Bobo declared himself Tian Wang of the majority-Xiongnu Xia.
Shenzong died. He was succeeded by his young son Emperor Zhezong, with his widow Empress Xiang acting as regent.
Jesuits Martino Martini and Ferdinand Verbiest arrived in China.
China anti-Japanese demonstrations: Anti-Japanese protests took place in China due to a dispute over ownership of the Diaoyu Islands.
Qin's wars of unification: Qin invaded Han.
The Southern Yan emperor Murong Chao was executed by Jin along with his court and nobility.
Xiang ousted the court faction affiliated with Wang's reforms at Sima's urging.
The Shunzhi Emperor died. He was succeeded by his young son the Kangxi Emperor, with the Four Regents of the Kangxi Emperor acting as regents.
18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Xi Jinping succeeded Hu Jintao as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.
Jing Ke failed in an assassination attempt on Qin Shi Huang.
Western Qin conquered the Southern Liang capital Ledu, in modern Haidong.
The Southern Ming admiral Koxinga declared the establishment of the Kingdom of Tungning on Taiwan.
One Belt, One Road was proposed to connect and cooperate among countries primarily between China and rest of Eurasia.
Qin conquered Wei.
The Later Qin emperor Yao Hong surrendered to the Jin general Emperor Wu of Liu Song.
Huizong's son Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia became emperor of Western Xia.
Siege of Fort Zeelandia: The VOC surrendered Fort Zeelandia on Taiwan to Koxinga.
The Shanghai Free-Trade Zone was established.
Qin conquered Chu.
An was strangled on Wu's orders and succeeded by his brother Emperor Gong of Jin.
Shen published the Dream Pool Essays.
Schall von Bell was imprisoned.
Tiananmen Square attack: A car was driven into a crowd in Tianamen Square, killing the driver and two passengers, Uyghurs associated with the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, and two pedestrians.
Qin conquered Yan.
Wu deposed Gong, marking the beginning of the Liu Song dynasty.
The earliest known description of the mechanical belt appeared.
Revolt of the Three Feudatories: Wu rebelled against the Qing dynasty on the pretext of seeking to restore the Ming.
The lunar lander Chang'e 3 landed on the moon.
Qin conquered Zhao.
The Western Liang prince Li Xun committed suicide during the siege of his capital Dunhuang by Northern Liang.
Su completed a clock tower in Kaifeng.
The Belgian Jesuit Antoine Thomas arrived in China.
China became the world's second largest economy.
Qin conquered Qi.
The Western Qin prince Qifu Mumo was executed along with his nobility by the Xia emperor Helian Ding.
The Dongpo Academy was established on Hainan.
Battle of Penghu: A Qing fleet destroyed the Tungning navy at Penghu. The king of Tungning Zheng Keshuang surrendered to the Qing.
Kunming attack is a terrorist attack, killing 31 civilians and injuring more than 140 others. No group or individual stepped forward to claim responsibility for the attack.
The Heirloom Seal of the Realm was carved.
Helian Ding was captured by the khan of Tuyuhun.
Daozong was murdered. He was succeeded by his grandson Emperor Tianzuo of Liao.
The first of the Qing Thirteen Factories, neighborhoods where foreigners were allowed to live and trade, were established outside Guangzhou.
Chinese stock market turbulence started.
Qin Shi Huang took the title Qin Shi Huang, first emperor of China.
The Northern Yan emperor Feng Hong fled the capital Helong in the face of an attack by Northern Wei.
The Yingzao Fashi was published.
The Qing dynasty signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia, under which the two countries mutually agreed to a border at the Stanovoy Range.
China Victory Day Parade was held on the Tiananmen Square.
Construction began on the Great Wall of China.
Juqu Anzhou, the prince of Northern Liang in exile in Gaochang, was killed with his family by the Rouran Khaganate.
Mi Fu died.
Yun Shouping died.
G20 Hangzhou summit was held in the city of Hangzhou.
Chancellor Li Si standardized the Chinese writing system with the creation of Small Seal Script.
Bodhidharma arrived in China.
The Donglin Academy was founded.
The Lugou Bridge was reconstructed.
Tiangong-2 was launched with mission of more than ten scientific experiments.
The Lingqu Canal was built.
The oldest known painted depiction of a horse collar was made in the Mogao Caves.
The Wanyan chieftain Emperor Taizu of Jin declared himself emperor of the Jin dynasty.
The papal legate Charles-Thomas Maillard De Tournon arrived in the Qing capital Beijing.
Burning of books and burying of scholars: All copies of the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Documents and works of the Hundred Schools of Thought were ordered burned.
The Liu Song emperor Emperor Shun of Liu Song was deposed by his general Emperor Gao of Southern Qi.
Taizu conquered the Liao city of Huanglongfu.
The East India Company (EIC) established a trading post in Guangzhou.
Qin Shi Huang died from mercury pills made by his alchemists and court physicians; ironically these pills were meant to make Qin Shi Huang immortal.
The Northern Wei emperor Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei introduced the equal-field system.
The pagoda of Tianning Temple was completed.
The Peiwen Yunfu was completed.
Qin Shi Huang was buried with the Terracotta Army in the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor.
Change of Xianbei names to Han names: Xianbei names were converted to Han names in Northern Wei.
Chinese Rites controversy: The pope Pope Clement XI issued a papal bull forbidding veneration of the dead and worship of Confucius among Chinese converts to Catholicism.
Qin Shi Huang's son Qin Er Shi succeeded him as emperor of China.
The young Southern Qi emperor Emperor He of Southern Qi was deposed by his general Emperor Wu of Liang.
Taizu's brother Emperor Taizong of Jin became emperor of the Jin dynasty.
The Kangxi Dictionary was published.
The Xiongnu chanyu Modu Chanyu established the Xiongnu Empire on the Eurasian Steppe.
The Songyue Pagoda was built.
Jin dynasty forces captured Tianzuo.
Chinese expedition to Tibet: A Qing expedition expelled the invading forces of the Dzungar Khanate from Tibet.
Dazexiang Uprising: Military officers Chen Sheng and Wu Guang began a rebellion for fear of being executed after failing to arrive at their posts.
The Northern Wei emperor Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei fled the capital Luoyang to Chang'an at the advance of his general Gao Huan.
Jin–Song Wars: The Jin army invaded Song.
Chinese Rites controversy: The Kangxi Emperor banned Christian missions in China.
Dazexiang Uprising: Chen Sheng and Wu Guang were assassinated by their own men.
Gao Huan appointed Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei emperor of Eastern Wei with his capital at Ye.
Emperor Qinzong became emperor of the Song dynasty.
The Kangxi Emperor died.
Li was executed on charges of treason. Zhao Gao, who had framed him, was appointed chancellor in his stead.
The Yupian was completed.
Huizong's son Emperor Gaozong of Song became emperor of the Song dynasty at Lin'an City.
The Kangxi Emperor's son the Yongzheng Emperor became emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Battle of Julu: Chu forces led by the warlord Xiang Yu defeated a numerically superior Qin force, killing a large fraction of the Qin army.
The Eastern Wei general Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi deposed Xiaojing and established the state of Northern Qi.
A fire destroyed some thirteen thousand homes in the Song capital Lin'an City.
The Gujin Tushu Jicheng was completed.
Zhao Gao had Qin Er Shi killed. Qin Er Shi's nephew Ziying succeeded him.
The Liang general Emperor Wu of Chen deposed the emperor Emperor Jing of Liang, establishing the Chen dynasty.
Opium criminalized in China.
The Chu general Emperor Gaozu of Han entered the Qin capital Xianyang.
The Western Wei general Yuwen Hu deposed the emperor Emperor Gong of Western Wei in favor of his own cousin Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou, establishing the successor state of Northern Zhou.
Jiang Tingxi died.
Ziying killed Zhao.
The Northern Qi emperor Gao Heng and his father, the Taishang Huang Gao Wei, were executed with their family by Northern Zhou.
Emperor Xizong of Jin became emperor of the Jin dynasty.
The Yongzheng Emperor died. He was succeeded by his son the Qianlong emperor.
Ziying surrendered to Gaozu.
The Northern Zhou emperor Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou was forced to abdicate in favor of his regent Emperor Wen of Sui, initiating the Sui dynasty.
Chongzong's son Emperor Renzong of Western Xia became emperor of Western Xia.
The French Jesuit Jean Joseph Marie Amiot was sent to China.
Feast at Hong Gate: Gaozu fled a banquet after it became clear that Xiang had invited him there to be killed.
Compilation began of the Jingdian Shiwen.
Yue was executed on false charges of treason spurred by the Song chancellor Qin Hui.
Ten Great Campaigns: The khan of the Dzungar Khanate surrendered to invading Qing forces.
Xiang led an army into Xianyang, burned the Epang Palace and killed Ziying and the royal family.
Yan Zhitui first referred to toilet paper.
Xizong was murdered in a coup by Wanyan Liang, who succeeded him as emperor of Jin.
The Puning Temple was built to commemorate the defeat of the Dzungar Khanate.
Battle of Jingxing: Han forces dealt a decisive defeat to a numerically superior Zhao army at Jingxing Pass.
Sui forces captured the Chen capital Jiankang and its emperor Chen Shubao.
The Jin capital was moved from Huining Prefecture to Zhongdu.
The Canton System was established, under which the Chinese merchants operating in the Thirteen Factories were organized into a guild, the Cohong, and given an official monopoly.
The Qin general Zhao Tuo established the state of Nanyue.
Goguryeo–Sui War: A Sui army of some three hundred thousand, led by the general Yang Liang, invaded Goguryeo.
The Jin capital was moved to Kaifeng.
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple was completed.
Battle of Gaixia: Gaozu's Han forces destroyed the Western Chu army led by Xiang in modern Suzhou.
The Qieyun was published.
Wanyan Liang's cousin Emperor Shizong of Jin was declared emperor of Jin in the capital Kaifeng.
The Wenjin Chamber was built.
Gaozu took the title emperor and established his capital in Luoyang.
Sui–Former Lý War: Sui conquered and annexed the Early Lý dynasty.
Battle of Tangdao: The Jin navy suffered heavy losses in an attempted invasion of Song near the Shandong Peninsula.
A pagoda was built at Fragrant Hills.
Battle of Baideng: The Xiongnu encircled and besieged a superior Han force.
Wen died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Yang of Sui.
Battle of Caishi: Jin forces suffered as many as four thousand casualties at the hands of the Song dynasty in a naval battle which stalled their invasion across the Yangtze.
The Siku Quanshu was completed.
The multi-tube seed drill was invented.
The imperial examination was first used as the sole criterion for appointing local officials in Sui.
Wanyan Liang was assassinated by one of his officers near the Yangtze battlefront.
Dream of the Red Chamber was published.
Gaozu died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Hui of Han.
The Zhaozhou Bridge was completed.
Gaozong abdicated in favor of Emperor Xiaozong of Song.
Macartney Embassy The British ambassador George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney was introduced to the Qianlong Emperor.
The Han chancellor Xiao He died.
Japanese missions to Sui China: The Wa emissary Ono no Imoko arrived in Sui.
The Yunjing was compiled.
The Qianlong Emperor abdicated in favor of his son the Jiaqing Emperor.
Chang'an became the eastern terminus of the Silk Road to Europe.
The Grand Canal was completed.
The Beisi Pagoda was completed.
White Lotus Rebellion: White Lotus began an armed rebellion against the Qing dynasty.
Hui died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Qianshao of Han.
Engineers Geng Xun and Yuwen Kai invented an improved water clock.
Song and Jin concluded the Treaty of Longxing.
Protestant missions in China 1807–1953: The Protestant missionary Robert Morrison arrived in China.
Zhang Liang died.
Yang ordered his commanderies to submit maps and gazetteers to the central government.
The Liuhe Pagoda was completed.
The Jiaqing Emperor died.
Qianshao was deposed and killed on the orders of the empress dowager Empress Lü Zhi. He was succeeded by his brother Emperor Houshao of Han.
The Four Gates Pagoda was completed.
Zhu Xi rebuilt the White Deer Grotto Academy.
The Jiaqing Emperor's son the Daoguang Emperor became emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Lü Clan Disturbance: Houshao was deposed by imperial officials led by Chen Ping and Zhou Bo. He was succeeded by his uncle, Gaozu's son Emperor Wen of Han.
Battle of Salsu: Goguryeo routed a Sui invasion force at the Chongchon River, inflicting some three hundred thousand casualties.
Shizong died. He was succeeded by his grandson Emperor Zhangzong of Jin.
The Bible was first published in Chinese.
The Mawongdui Silk Texts were buried at Mawongdui.
Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas first visited China.
Xiaozong abdicated in favor of his son Emperor Guangzong of Song.
Destruction of opium at Humen: The Qing Imperial Commissioner Lin Zexu ordered the destruction of roughly a thousand tons of opium seized from EIC merchants in Humen.
Wen died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Jing of Han.
The rebel Emperor Gaozu of Tang, in control of the Sui capital Chang'an, declared Yang Taishang Huang and his grandson Yang You emperor.
The Chengling Pagoda was built.
First Opium War: The Qing dynasty and the United Kingdom signed the Treaty of Nanking, under which the former agreed to end the monopoly of the Cohong, pay reparations for the war and the destruction of opium, and cede Hong Kong Island in perpetuity.
Jing died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Wu of Han.
Transition from Sui to Tang: Gaozu deposed Yang You.
Wei Yuan published the Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms.
Wu adopted Confucianism.
Battle of Hulao: Tang forces defeated and captured the warlord Dou Jiande at Hulao Pass.
Renzong's son Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia became emperor of Western Xia.
The Qing dynasty and the United States signed the Treaty of Wanghia, according to which the United States was granted most favoured nation (MFN) status and extraterritoriality was granted to its citizens resident in China.
The Eight Immortals of Huainan published the Huainanzi.
Ouyang Xun completed the Yiwen Leiju.
Guangzong was forced to abdicate in favor of his son Emperor Ningzong.
The Daoguang Emperor died.
Han campaigns against Minyue: The Han dynasty invaded Minyue after a plea for assistance from its vassal state Nanyue.
Xuanwu Gate Incident: Gaozu's son Emperor Taizong of Tang assassinated his brothers Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng.
Huanzong was overthrown in a coup.
The Daoguang Emperor's son the Xianfeng Emperor became emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Southward expansion of the Han dynasty: The Han dynasty annexed Minyue.
Gaozu retired. Taizong succeeded him.
Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia became emperor of Western Xia.
Jintian Uprising: The followers of Hong Xiuquan, who believed him to be the younger brother of Jesus, announced their rebellion against the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in modern Guiping.
Battle of Mayi: A Han deception failed to lure the Xiongnu into an ambush at Mayi.
Tang campaign against the Eastern Turks: Tang forces captured the khan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate in the Yin Mountains.
Zhangzong died. He was succeeded by his brother Wanyan Yongji.
Third plague pandemic: A plague pandemic began in Yunnan which would kill hundreds of thousands in China and millions worldwide.
Zhang Qian returned to the Han court to report on his travels to the kingdoms of Dayuan, Kangju, the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Kingdoms, Parthia and Mesopotamia.
The first Christian missionaries arrived in China.
Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia deposed and replaced Xiangzong as emperor of Western Xia.
Punti-Hakka Clan Wars: An ethnic conflict began in Guangdong between the Punti and Hakka peoples which would claim roughly a million lives.
Battle of Mobei: A Han expedition into the Orkhon Valley began which would deal a decisive and bloody defeat to the Xiongnu.
Nestorian monks from Anatolia and the Sasanian Empire built the Daqin Pagoda.
Battle of Yehuling: The army of the Mongol Empire captured or killed over four hundred thousand Jin soldiers defending an important mountain pass at Zhangjiakou.
Second Opium War: The British navy began a bombardment of Guangzhou.
Han campaigns against Minyue: The Minyue rump state of Dongyue was invaded and annexed by the Han dynasty.
Alopen wrote the Jesus Sutras.
Wanyan Yongji was assassinated.
The Qing dynasty signed the Treaty of Aigun, ceding to Russia the land north of the Amur River.
Han–Nanyue War: The Han dynasty conquered and annexed Nanyue.
Emperor Taizong's campaign against Tuyuhun: The Tuyuhun khan Murong Fuyun, in flight from Tang forces and with much of his army destroyed, was killed by his officers.
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin became emperor of the Jin dynasty.
Second Opium War: The Qing dynasty signed the Treaty of Tientsin, under which foreigners were granted greater freedom of movement within China and France and the United Kingdom were promised war reparations.
Han campaigns against Dian: The Han dynasty invaded and annexed the Dian Kingdom.
The Book of Liang was published.
The Jin dynasty signed a treaty under which it became a vassal state paying tribute to the Mongol Empire.
Battle of Sanhe: A Taiping army encircled and destroyed a much smaller Qing force in Anhui.
Battle of Loulan: Han forces attacked the Loulan Kingdom at Lop Nur.
The Xumi Pagoda was completed.
Battle of Zhongdu: Mongol forces breached the walls of Zhongdu and massacred its inhabitants.
Second Opium War: British and French forces looted and burned down the Old Summer Palace in the Qing capital Beijing.
Han forces laid siege to Kokand.
The Book of Chen, Book of Northern Qi, Book of Zhou, and Book of Sui were compiled.
Jin–Song Wars: A Song army captured the Jin city of Xihezhou in modern Xihe County.
The Qing prince Prince Gong signed the Convention of Peking, ratifying the Treaty of Tientsin and ceding the Kowloon Peninsula in perpetuity to the United Kingdom.
Steel was first used in China.
Tibetan attack on Songzhou: Tibetan forces raided the city of Songzhou, in modern Songpan County.
Shenzong abdicated in favor of his son Emperor Xianzong of Western Xia.
Gong established the Zongli Yamen to temporarily supervise the conduct of foreign affairs throughout the Qing government.
Sima Qian completed the Records of the Grand Historian.
The Protectorate General to Pacify the West was established.
The Xianfeng Emperor died.
Wu died. He was succeeded by his young son Emperor Zhao of Han, with Huo Guang, Jin Midi and Shangguang Jie acting as regents.
Tang campaign against Karakhoja: Tang defeated and annexed Gaochang.
Xuanzong's son Emperor Aizong of Jin became emperor of the Jin dynasty.
The Xianfeng Emperor's young son the Tongzhi Emperor became emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Pottery was used in Xianren Cave.
Emperor Taizong's campaign against Xueyantuo: Taizong sent his general Li Shiji to support the restoration of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate under Qilibi Khan against Xueyantuo.
Ningzong died. He was succeeded by Emperor Lizong.
Dungan Revolt: A disordered uprising began among the Hui people living on the west bank of the Yellow River.
The Zhenpiyan culture appeared.
Taizong commissioned Yan Liben to paint portraits of his officials at Lingyan Pavilion.
The Tongwen Guan school of European languages was established.
Pigs were first domesticated in China.
The Prince of Changyi was appointed emperor of Han by Huo Guang.
Tang campaigns against Karasahr: A Tang army captured Karasahr and installed a friendly king.
Emperor Mozhu of Western Xia became emperor of Western Xia.
The Ever Victorious Army of the Qing dynasty was disbanded.
The Pengtoushan culture appeared.
The Prince of Changyi was deposed.
First campaign in the Goguryeo–Tang War: Tang forces dispersed a Goguryeo army which had arrived in defense of Ansi City.
The Mongol khagan Genghis Khan died.
Yangzhou riot: Scholar-officials resident in Yangzhou instigated a riot in which the headquarters of the British missionary society OMF International were attacked and burned.
Rice was first domesticated in China.
Huo appointed Wu's great grandson, then a commoner, Emperor Xuan of Han.
Bianji compiled the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions.
Mozhu surrendered to the Mongol Empire during the siege of the Western Xia capital Zhongxing.
Nian Rebellion: The last of the rebel armies was destroyed.
The Peiligang culture appeared.
Battle of Jushi: Han forces defeated the people of the Gushi culture, at that time subject to the Xiongnu, at Jiaohe in modern Turpan.
The Protectorate General to Pacify the North was established.
Mongol siege of Kaifeng: The Jin general in charge of the defense of the capital Kaifeng surrendered to the besieging Mongol army. Aizong had fled during the siege; his family members still in the city were executed.
Tianjin massacre: A riot took place in Tianjin in which some sixty people, including foreigners and Chinese Christians, were killed.
The Jiahu symbols were first used at Jiahu.
The Protectorate of the Western Regions was established.
The Book of Jin was compiled.
Siege of Caizhou: Aizong passed the throne to his general Emperor Mo of Jin and hanged himself in the face of a Mongol siege of Caizhou. The Mongols breached the city.
Li Hongzhang was appointed Viceroy of Zhili.
The Cishan culture appeared.
Tang campaigns against Karasahr: Tang forces captured the king of Karasahr.
Siege of Caizhou: Mo died fighting the Mongols at Caizhou.
Panthay Rebellion: The last surviving Panthay rebels were defeated by the Qing dynasty in Tengchong.
Dogs were first domesticated in China.
Xuan's son Emperor Yuan of Han became emperor of the Han dynasty.
The four arts were first written of as skills required of a Chinese scholar-official.
Qin Jiushao wrote the Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections.
The Tongzhi Emperor died.
Symbols were carved into pottery at Banpo.
Consort Ban was born.
Tang campaign against Kucha: Kucha surrendered to Tang forces.
The Mongol khagan Möngke Khan died during a siege of Diaoyu Fortress.
Margary Affair: The British diplomat Augustus Raymond Margary was murdered with his retinue in Tengchong.
Silk processing was invented by the Yangshao culture.
The earliest surviving Chinese record of the treadle-operated tilt hammer appeared.
Toluid Civil War: Möngke's brother Ariq Böke declared himself khagan of the Mongol Empire.
The young Guangxu Emperor became emperor of the Qing dynasty, with the empress dowagers Empress Dowager Ci'an and Empress Dowager Cixi acting as regents.
The beginning of the period of the Three August Ones and Five Emperors in China.
Jing Fang died.
Taizong's son Emperor Gaozong of Tang became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Toluid Civil War: Kublai Khan, brother to Möngke and to Ariq Böke, was crowned khagan of the Mongol Empire.
The Qing dynasty and the United Kingdom signed the Chefoo Convention, under which Qing promised to punish those responsible for Margary's murder and repeal the likin.
Silk was produced by the Liangzhu culture.
Battle of Zhizhi: A Han force breached and destroyed a fortress occupied by the Xiongnu chanyu Zhizhi Chanyu at Taraz, killing him.
Gaozong commissioned the compilation of a materia medica.
Kublai appointed the Sakya lama Drogön Chögyal Phagpa Imperial Preceptor.
Battle of Fuzhou: A French fleet destroyed the Qing Fujian Fleet at the mouth of the Min River.
Battle of Banquan: The forces of Shennong were repelled by a force of tribes allied under the Yellow Emperor.
Yuan died. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Cheng of Han.
Battle of Irtysh River: Tang forces ambushed and largely destroyed the army of the Western Turkic Khaganate at the Irtysh River.
Yang Hui first drew Pascal's triangle.
The Yellow River flood kills up to 2 million people and makes an additional 2 million homeless. At the time, it was the deadliest natural disaster ever recorded.
Battle of Zhuolu: A combined army of Chinese tribes under the Yellow Emperor defeated a Hmong invasion at Zhuolo.
The earliest surviving mention of the wheelbarrow appeared.
The History of the Southern Dynasties and the History of the Northern Dynasties were completed.
Lizong died. He was succeeded by his nephew Emperor Duzong.
Foreign businessmen established the Shanghai Sharebrokers' Association in Shanghai.
Zhi became king of China.
Liu Xiang compiled the Biographies of Exemplary Women.
Battle of Baekgang: The allied navies of Silla and the Tang dynasty defeated a combined Baekje restorationist and Japanese force in the lower reaches of the Geum River.
Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: The Mongol Empire invaded Song.
First Sino-Japanese War: War was officially declared between Japan and the Qing dynasty.
settlers first contact with Văn Lang.
Cheng died. He was succeeded by his nephew Emperor Ai of Han.
The Chinese Buddhist monks Zhiyu and Zhiyou crafted a mechanical south-pointing chariot for the Japanese emperor Emperor Tenji.
Battle of Xiangyang: Kublai ordered his general Aju to take Xiangyang.
First Sino-Japanese War: The Qing dynasty signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki, under which it recognized the independence of Joseon, granted Japan MFN status and ceded to it Penghu, Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula.
Great Flood: Yu the Great completed a drainage system which ended the periodic and destructive flooding of the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. (Reliable Archaeological discoveries depict that it happened around 1920BC.
The Protectorate General to Pacify the East was established.
Sambyeolcho Rebellion: The Sambyeolcho rebelled against Wonjong of Goryeo, the Mongol-allied king of Goryeo.
Hundred Days' Reform: The Guangxu Emperor instituted reforms including radical changes in the imperial examination and the elimination of sinecures.
The Nine Tripod Cauldrons were forged from metal given in tribute to Yu by the Nine Provinces.
Ai's young cousin Emperor Ping of Han was appointed emperor of the Han dynasty, with Wong Mang acting as regent.
Marco Polo left Venice.
The Guangxu Emperor was removed from the imperial palace in a coup organized by Cixi and Ronglu, the Viceroy of Zhili.
Tai Kang became king of the Xia dynasty.
The first model of a stern-mounted rudder was produced.
The Qianling Mausoleum was completed.
Kublai declared himself emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Boxer Rebellion: Cixi responded to anti-foreign unrest by issuing the Imperial Decree of declaration of war against foreign powers in the Guangxu Emperor's name.
Xiang of Xia became king of the Xia dynasty.
A census counted fifty-nine million people in the Han empire.
Luo Binwang died.
Battle of Xiangyang: The Yuan army breached and captured Xiangyang.
Boxer Rebellion: The Qing dynasty and Eight-Nation Alliance signed the Boxer Protocol, under which the Alliance was granted war reparations and the right to station troops in the capital Beijing.
Xiang was murdered and displaced as king on the orders of the warlord Han Zhuo. His pregnant wife fled the capital Shangqiu.
Ping established a national school system. Ban Biao, first author of the Book of Han, is born.
Gaozong's wife Wu Zetian became emperor of the Tang dynasty.
Duzong died. He was succeeded by his young son Emperor Gong of Song.
The Guangxu Emperor died of arsenic poisoning.
Xiang's wife gave birth to a son, Shao Kang.
Ping died after being poisoned by Wong, who became acting emperor.
Tang forces reconquered the Four Garrisons of Anxi from Tibet.
Mongol invasions of Japan: A Yuan fleet landed at Tsushima Island.
The Guangxu Emperor's young nephew Puyi became emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The people of Shangqiu welcomed an army loyal to Shao into the city. Han committed suicide.
Liu Xin completed a star catalogue and calculated the length of the year.
The Dunhuang map was created.
The Yuan general Bayan of the Baarin defeated a Song army led by the chancellor Jia Sidao.
Second Guangzhou uprising
Zhu of Xia became king of the Xia dynasty.
Wong declared himself emperor of the Xin dynasty.
The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda was rebuilt.
Gong and his great aunt the grand empress dowager Xie Daoqing surrendered themselves to the Yuan army besieging the Song capital Lin'an City.
Wuchang uprising: New Army soldiers staged a mutiny in Wuchang District and occupied the residence of the Viceroy of Huguang.
Zhu died. He was succeeded by his son Huai of Xia.
Wong introduced the well-field system of land distribution and agricultural production.
Wu Zetian was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her son Emperor Zhongzong of Tang.
Gong's older brother, the young Emperor Duanzong, was crowned emperor of the Song dynasty at Fuzhou.
Republic of China provisional presidential election: Sun Yat-sen was elected president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, with a majority of sixteen of the seventeen provincial representatives of the Tongmenghui in Nanjing.
Huai died. He was succeeded by his son Mang of Xia.
Wong introduced an income tax of ten percent for professionals and skilled laborers.
Zhongzong became emperor of Tang.
Qian Xuan retired.
Xinhai Revolution: Sun Yat-sen was inaugurated president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China.
Mang was succeeded by his son Xie of Xia.
Wong outlawed the private use of crossbows.
The Small Wild Goose Pagoda was completed.
The Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory was built.
Xinhai Revolution: Puyi's regent, the empress dowager Empress Dowager Longyu, signed an edict under which Puyi would retain his imperial title but all power would pass to the Provisional Government of the Republic of China.
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