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Henry IV took the throne Helped end the French wars of Religion. Believed in absolutism. Used nobility to introduce central authority Christian turned Calvinist to satisfy Calvinist citizens.
Henry IV Died
Ivan The Terrible takes the throne. Russian Tsar. Orthodox Christian. Believes in absolutism and a supreme ruler. Aimed to control nobility through violence. Rules with an iron fist. Bloody ruling.
Death of Ivan the Terrible
James I Takes Throne King of Scotland. Lavish spending led to an appeal for Parliament to increase taxes. Led his to renew old debts, sell monopolies, sell titles. Not liked by his peoples.
James I Dies
Thomas Hobbes Wrote Leviathan. Believed in the "State of Nature" (humans are selfish, will live in chaos without government. People must submit to a sovereign.
Thomas Hobbes died
Edict of Nantes Signed Signed by Henry IV. Allowed Protestants to practice freely and have civil rights in France
Edict of Nantes Revoked Revoked by Louis XIV.
Louis XIII Comes to Power Son of Henry IV Believed in expanding monarchical power. Ruled through a Regent (his mother) and Cardinal Richelieu until he turned of age.
Louis XIII Dies
Start of Thirty Years War War between the Protestants and the Catholics. Started when Ferdinand II revoked religious freedom and forced citizens to practice Catholicism. Later became a political war about power between French and Hapsburg's. Spearheaded by Cardinal Richelieu in a an attempt to gain more power.
End of Thirty Years War
Cardinal Richelieu Adviser to Louis XIV. Helps rule alongside his father during her Regency. Believes in centralized power for France. Redirected the Thirty Years War from religion to a political war against the Hapsburg's.
Cardinal Richelieu Dies
Charles I Comes to Power Suspended then recalled Parliament after tax increase refusal. Angry at Parliament for refusing him, storms Parliament which causes Civil War to erupt.
Charles I gets Beheaded
John Locke Believes in "State of Nature". Believes that over time man will cooperate to create societies. With cooperation comes law and government. Right to life, liberty, and property. Opposite of Thomas Hobbes.
Louis XIV Comes to Power Forced out of Paris due to Fronde, moved to Versailles. Created a royal court in Versailles. Believed in controlling the nobles. Made it a rule that a noble must visit Versailles once a year. Used spies to check up on them. Absolutist.
Louis XIV Dies
Civil War in England Erupted due to conflict between Charles I and Parliament. War between Royalists (for the monarch) and Roundheads (for Parliament). Charles I captured and beheaded. Parliament started to rule.
Civil War in England Ends
Treaty of Westphalia Signed All states must recognize Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism and each King gets to choose the religion of his people. Swiss independence from Austria, Netherlands independence from Spain. Sweden gained territory. France acquired Alsace Lorraine. End of religious conflict, supposedly.
Colbert Became General of Finance in France
Colbert Became Secretary of State of France
Versailles Opened Versailles held the court of Louis XIV. Home of Louis XIV after he was pushed out of Paris due to the Fronde. Nobility was mandated to come at least once a year to tend to Louis. Way to control nobility. Spies were used to spy on nobility.
Cardinal Mazarin Becomes First Minister of France Helped establish French supremacy. Worked alongside Richelieu. Present for the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia.
Cardinal Mazarin Died
Peter the Great Came to Power Orthodox Christian. Believed in a single figurehead for Russia. Did not reinstate head bishop (got rid of face of church). Toured Europe and brought back its ideas to Russia. Westernized Russia.
Glorious Revolution Intended to restore Roman Catholic faith. Wanted to revive the power of the English monarch. William of Orange asked to invade in order to overthrow James 4. Resulted in Bill of Rights of Parliament, which stated "Pretend power or suspending of laws, or the execution of laws by regal authority, without consent if Parliament is illegal."
End of Glorious Revolution
Catherine the Great Empress of Russia after dethroning her husband, Peter III. Continued to work of Peter the great in an attempt to further westernize Russia.
Catherine The Great Dies
ABSOLUTISM DEFINED. ABSOLUTISM IS A SYSTEM IN WHICH A SINGLE RULER HAS COMPLETE POWER OVER A COUNTRY OR STATE
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