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Many people became unhappy. They were also unemployed when chaos emerged in Rome's government. People rioted in the streets, while people from around the republic flooded the city.
Octavian returned to Italy, Marc Antony married Cleopatra after divorcing Octavian's sister(Octavia). The divorce led to a civil war between Antony and Octavian. Antony and Cleopatra killed themselves, making Augustus(formerly called Octavian) the sole ruler. This marked the beginning of the Roman empire.
Rome's reasons for expansion includes that they wanted to control hostile neighbors, and wanted more resources. Under Emperor Claudius, Romans conquered most of the island of Britain. The first 200 years of the Roman empire is the Pax- Ramona which is Roman Peace.
The Romans made lasting achievements in science, engineering, architecture, and art. Galen was a Greek surgeon who studied the body. He also described the valves of the heart and noted differences between arteries and veins.
Judea had been conquered by Rome in 63 BC. Judea was where most Jews lived. since the fight the Jews had resented Roman rule.
The Romans made cement by mixing a mineral called lime with volcanic rock and ash. The Romans made aqueduct which is a raised channel used to carry water from mountains into cities. The Romans also liked designing they had marble that was copied from Greek they also built things called vaults
An orator and philosopher named Cicero called for change but was unsuccessful. He wanted to limit the power of generals and restore checks and balances on government.
Emperors had given up some of the land the Roman army had conquered. these emperors feared that the empire become too large to defend efficiently. As later rulers discovered, these emperors were right.
Diocletian became emperor in the late 200. convinced that the empire was too big for one person to rule. Not long after Diocletian left power, the emperor Constantine reunited the empire for a short time.
The source of these raids was a group of people called the Huns, fierce warriors from central Asia. The Huns first invaded south eastern Europe. Rome's leaders feared that the Goths Would destroy Roman land and property.
The Gothic Victory inspired other groups of foreign warriors to invade the western half of the empire. The Vandals, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Franks all launched attacks.The Huns was under a fearsome leader named Attila raided Roman territory in the east.
Conflict among these military leaders gave the invaders an opening. In 476 one of the foreign generals overthrew the last emperor in Rome and named himself king of Italy. Many historians consider this event the end of the Western Roman Empire.
There were several causes of Rome's decline. One was the vast size of the empire. Communication among various parts of the empire was difficult.
Some historians believe that social change also weakened the empire. they argue that the adoption of Christianity in place of traditional Roman religion undermined Roman culture. People felt less loyal to the empire and were less likely to protect it.
Political crises also contributed to the decline. By the 400s corruption, the decay of people's values had become widespread in Roman government. Corrupt officials used threats and bribery to achieve their goals.
Many wealthy citizens fled to their country estates. Some overthrew emperors and took power for themselves. people who stayed in the cities made life more difficult.
The eastern empire grew in wealth and power. Its people created a new society. the society was different from the society in the west.
The eastern emperors dreamed of retaking Rome. Justinian is an emperor who ruled from 527 to 565. reuniting the old Roman empire was a passion to him.
In 532 an uprising threatened to drive him from Constantinople. However Theodora convinced him to stay and fight. Justinian crushed the riots and ruled effectively for the rest of his reign.
The society of the eastern empire was distinct from that of the west. Historians call the society that developed in Rome. The importance of Christianity in the eastern empire is reflected in the Byzantines' beautiful works of art and magnificent churches.
Sample of an long event
Disorder in the Roman Republic
The End of The Republic
Rome's growing empire
Rome conquering Judea
Problems in the Empire
Division of the empire
The Fall of the Western Empire
A new eastern empire
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