Scientific Revolution Timeline
⟶ Updated 6 months ago ⟶
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Nicholas Copernicus is born on February 19, 1473.
Copernicus begins to formulate his heliocentric theory.
Copernicus publishes Little Commentary which discusses the heliocentric theory.
Copernicus begins work on heliocentrism in his work Little Commentary.
Copernicus publishes On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres which also delves into heliocentrism.
Copernicus publishes On the Minting of the Coin discussing coinage and his quantity theory of money. The quantity theory of money is the relation between a stock if money and its output onto the economy.
Tycho Brahe is born on December 15, 1546.
Brahe published On the New Star which was about his refusal of Aristotle's belief on an unchanging realm. Observed a comet which disproved Aristotlean beliefs.
After his death, Recent Phenomena of the Celestial World was published (part of the two-part series Introduction to the New Astronomy) stating his Tychonic system of the world- this system stated that all planets revolved around the Sun, the Sun revolved around the Earth, and the moon orbits the Earth.
Tycho creates the Tychonian Planet Model used for observing planets and comets.
Johannes Kepler is born on December 27, 1571.
Kepler publishes New Astronomy (Astronomia nova) which supports heliocentrism. It is the first book to include the planets' elliptical paths and recognized planets as free-floating bodies. One of the most important works of the Scientific Revolution.
Kepler publishes Harmonies Mundi which contains his laws of planetary motion and congruence in geometrical forms.
Kepler publishes seven books throughout four years title Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae. These books compounded on his ideas of physics and planetary motion. It first coined the term "inertia". Meant to be a textbook.
Kepler creates the Mysterium Cosmographicum as the first published defense to Copernican's ideals.
Galileo publishes Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems which compared the Copernican system with the Ptolemaic system. It was used during his trial to prove that Galileo had committed heresy. It attacked pope Urban VIII and alienated him and the Jesuits.
Galileo Galilei is born on February 15, 1564.
Under house arrest, Galileo publishes Two New Sciences which comprises his physics ideas and theories over thirty years. It presents the idea that equal motion covers an equal distance over any period of time.
Galileo created his first telescope in 1609 and could magnify an object 20 times. He was able to see the moon with this and see the stellites of Jupiter.
Galileo's pump is created; used to lift water to higher levels.
Galileo invents a thermometer to measure heat and temperature.
Isaac Newton is born on December 25, 1642.
Newton wrote Principia Mathematica which states his laws of motion, classical mechanics, his law of universal gravitation, and planetary motion laws.
Newton publishes Opticks which discussed concepts of light such as reflection, inflection, refraction, and color.
Newton built the first refracting telescope.
Francis Bacon was born on January 22, 1561.
Bacon wrote the Novum Organum in which he creates a new system of logic called the Baconian method.
Bacon writes Advancement of Learning which was about taxonomic structure and empirical philosophy.
Bacon writes New Atlantis, a fictional dystopian novel expressing his ideals and aspirations for humankind.
Rene Descartes was born on March 31, 1596.
Descartes published Meditations on First Philosophy which talked about his meditations over six days each consisting of a different metaphysical aspect.
Descartes publishes Discourse on the Method with it being about skepticism and analyzing everything from a different viewpoint. To not be biased, Rene would doubt everything he studied.
Descartes publishes Principles of Philosophy and it outlines the Laws of Physics and the idea that an object not affected by an outside forces travels in a continuous line.
Andreas Vesalius is born on December 31, 1514.
Vesalius publishes On the Fabric of the Human Body in which he deviates from common practice by dissecting. His book publishes superior illustrations of organs due to the Renaissance and his dissections. He carefull examines not only organs but the entire body.
Vesalius finds out his illustrations of the human body are being copied so he publishes them all in the book called Tabulae anatomicae sex.
In 1538, Vesalius wrote the Venesection Letter which stated of the continuation of bloodletting. What was different about his argument is that he used his own information, not relying on previous experiments.
Robert Boyle was born on January 25, 1627.
Boyle created Boyle's law stating that the pressure of gas increases as the volume of a container decreases.
Boyle wrote the Sceptical Chymist which stated that matter consisted of corpuscles and corpuscles in motion. Every phenomenon was caused by the interactions of these corpuscles. He went against Aristotle's claims and said that elements are "unmingled bodies".
Boyle writes the Christian Virtuoso summarizing all of his religious views. He was a devout Anglican and had increasing trouble with Atheism in his later years.
Hooke publishes Micrographia: the first book to display drawings of insects, plants, etc. up close and in detail as seen through microscopes. Promoted the use of microscopes in science.
The word "cell" is coined by Robert Hooke.
Hooke discovers the law of elasticity stating the relation between tension and an elastic spring.
Hooke invents the balance spring.
Antoine Lavoisier was born August 26, 1743.
Lavoisier discovers and names oxygen.
Lavoisier discovers and names hydrogen.
Silicon is discovered but was predicted to exist by Lavoisier.
Lavoisier was the first to establish sulfur as an element compared to a compound.
Lavoisier states that although matter changes form and shape, mass always stays the same.
Lavoisier presents his paper titled Réflexions sur le phlogistique which outlines his problems with the phlogiston theory.
Lavoisier publishes Traité élémentaire de chimie which was all of his ideas into a textbook. It denied pholigiston, specified the law of conservation of mass, and included other theories of chemistry.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was born on October 24, 1632.
Leeuwenhoek writes a letter to the Royal Society (1673) detailing his findings on mold, bees, and lice.
Leeuwenhoek sends another letter to the Royal Society outlining his discoveries on single-celled organisms. He is distrusted because not much is known about these organisms.
Leeuwenhoek discovers infusoria.
Leeuwenhoek discovers bacteria.
Leeuwenhoek discovers spermatozoa.
Leeuwenhoek discovers the banded patterns of muscle fibers.
William Harvey is born on April 1, 1578.
William Harvey writes On Animal Generation in which Harvey discerns the different parts of the egg and explains embryogenesis in further detail.
Harvey writes De Motu Cordis (Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart and Blood) and explains circulation and a new way of blood flow through the heart.
Paracelsus was born on September 24, 1541.
Paracelsus publishes Der grossen Wundartzney (Great Surgery Book) which talks about how the body can heal itself.
Paracelsus details about syphilis and the treatment for it.
London Pharmacopoeia included Paracelsus' ideas as he contributed to psychiatry treatment and medicine.
Tycho Brahe finishes the first custom-built observatory in modern Europe.
Galileo begins and finishes inventing a sector: a military compass used by gunners and surveyors.
Newton took notes titled Questions about Philosophy in which he created the basis of calculus and performed on the optics of color.
Descartes continuously develops Cartesian and analytical mathematics.
Lavoisier tries to come up with a new theory to combustion.
Leeuwenhoek begins to study microbial life with his microscope.
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