September 30, 2020
For educational institutions
⟶ Updated 23 Jan 2019 ⟶
List of edits
A.I. in Literature Mary Shelley publishes "Frankenstein" in London This book introduces the idea of a creation turning against its creator, exemplified by Frankenstein'smonster swears to end his creator's life.
A.I. in Literature - Examined The Frankenstein Complex Issac Asimov, a science fiction novelist, coined the term "Frankenstein Complex" in his short story "Little Lost Robot". This term refers to the fear of mechanical men. In his novel, he portrays this concept strongly and stresses that the fear will be more present whenA.I. takes a human form, such as an android.
A.I. in Literature - Examined Paternalism In much of Asimov's work, he uses the concept of paternalism, which is when an individual's freedom is restricted for their own wellbeing, regardless of that individual's wishes. This concept, along with the Frankenstein complex, help to describe the issues both the robot manufacturers and public encounter in his stories.
A.I. in Articles The Uncanny Valley Robotics Professor Masahiro Mori published "Bukimi no Tani", where he describes emotional responses to humanoid robots. The uncanny valley measures an increase in negative emotional responses in humans as robots approach, but never reach, verisimilitude. Humanoid robots had not yet been created. This concept was reintroduced in a book by Jasia Reichardt.
The Term "Artificial Intelligence" History of the word The term was coined by American computer scientist, pioneer, and inventor John McCarthy during his proposal for the 1956 Dartmouth Conference. This conference was the first for the field of artificial intelliegence.
Turing Test A test that determines if a computer or machine could be considered "intelligent" by establishing standards
Feigenbaum Test A variation of the Turing Test proposed by Edward Feigenbaum. It tests a computer's ability to mature by comparing the computer to an expert. The test avoids the necessity of casual conversation.
A.I. in Literature Samuel Butler publishes his novel "Erehwon" This novel questioned the evolution of consciousness in machines, which have the ability to self-replicate in the book. There is also the threat that machines would replace humans in this novel. event
A.I. in Literature Samuel Butler's "Darwin among the Machines" The basis of "Erehwon", Butler questions the application of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution to the development of machines.
A.I. in Theatre Karel Čapek's R.U.R. The play introduced the word "robot" to the English language. In the play, a group of self-replicating robots revolted against their owners. This is one of the earliest tales of a rebellion of A.I.
Invented - Apple Lisa
Invented - First Analog Computer
Discovered - Antikythera
Invented - First IBM-PC
Invention - First Train
Invention - Combustion Engine
Invention - First Motion Picture
Invention - First Photograph
Invention - First Liquid-Fuelled Rocket
Event - First Moon Landing
Invention - Polygraph
Invention - First Power Generator
Invention - iPad
Invented - iPhone
Event - Google is founded
Isaac Asimov A science fiction author and professor of biochemistry, Asimov was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers, equal to authors Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clark. He was an influential writer that most science fiction writers, post-1950s, have been exposed to. He coined the term "Frankenstein Complex", which is pertinent in many of his stories.
John McCarthy Founder of Artificial Intelligence McCarthy coined the term "artificial intelligence" and a was a key founder in developing the field. He created a program called Lisp, which was very influential in the development of A.I. He believed that "every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can, in principle, be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it."
Alan Turing The father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence Turing was an English mathematician, computer scientist, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist. To address the issue of artifical intelligence, Turing created an experiment now known as the Turing test, which established a standard for a machine to be known as intelligent. It theorized that a computer could be "intelligent" if a human could not distinguish it from a human when conversing with it.
Isadore Jacob Gudak A British mathematician, he founded the concepts of "technological singularity", which theorized the danger of superhuman intelligence. Gudak also believed that an ultraintelligent machine would end humanity.
Marvin Minsky American cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky believed that machines would eventually become more intelligence than most human beings. He acknowledged the possibility of that intelligent machines could take control, but believed this to be highly unlikely and was confident in the development of the technology.
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