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11 months ago
11 months ago
Settled in Canaan (later Palestine and then Israel) Founded the Hebrew race who all believed in one God. Abraham - Isaac - Jacob - 12 sons (one of whom was Joseph, sold into slavery in Egypt. Became PM to the King and brought the Hebrews to live in Egypt.) Hebrews enslaved by new pharaoh for many years, until 1200 BCE.
Moses led the Jews out of slavery in Egypt, and died on the way back to Canaan. His son, Joshua led them back (Festival of Passover). Moses received the Ten Commandments from God and other laws by which to live.
Successors were David and Solomon; City of Jerusalem captured and became the centre of Jewish faith. Torah written - the teachings of Moses and the first five books of the Bible; became the basis of Judaism.
Assyrians conquered Israel, many Jews scattered and lost their faith.
Babylonians conquered, destroyed temple and captured Jews; period of the Babylonian Exile. Remained faithful to Judaism
Persians conquered Israel; allowed Jews to return and the rebuilt the temple. Beginning of the Diaspora as some Jews remained in Babylonia.
Antiochus IV of Syria (Epiphanes) ruled and attempted to stop practice of Judaism. Led by Judah Maccabee, the Jews overthrew the Syrians and lived in peace for
Romans conquered, harsh rules made it very difficult to remain a Jew; many left Judea. Jesus born as a Jew in this period, killed by Romans because he said he was king of the Jews and the Romans allowed not kings in their empire.
Jews revolted and Romans left briefly
Titus destroyed the second temple and took Jewish captives to Rome. Jews outlawed in Jerusalem.
Crusades - military expeditions to get rid of Muslims, sparked wave of hatred for non-Christians. Political and religious leaders demanded the Jews be segregated and they lived in walled off areas called ghettos, not allowed to work at certain trades and had to wear badges.
Expelled from Spain under the Inquisition which punished all non-Christians.
Beginning of people demanding freedom and equality for all
- Hasidism developed in Western Europe, stressed kindness and joyful worship.
Growth of anti-Semitism; writers attempted to prove that Jews were inferior; Poland and Russia abandoned their policy of toleration of the Jews Thousands of Jews killed in massacres called pogroms 2 million fled to USA and others to Palestine.
Defeat of Germany in World War 1. Left German economy in ruins. Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and began a vicious campaign against the Jews who were blamed for all the economic difficulties.
Germans stripped Jews of their citizenship, sent Jews to concentration camps and ghettoes, seized property. Many Jews fled to other countries but immigration policies made this very difficult.
World War II. Nazis conquered almost all of Eastern Europe and most European Hews came under Nazi domination. Orders from Hitler to kill all Jews. 6 million Jews killed (a third of the world's entire Jewish population) in concentration camps through mass extermination procedures of firing squads and gas chambers.
Alexander the Great of Macedonia Ptolemies of Egypt Seleucids of Syria all ruled by allowed the Jews to live peacefully.
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