oct 1, 1648 - Peace of Westphalia
The treaties signed at Munster and Osnabruck marked a turning point in European political, religious, and social history since conflicts fought over religious faiths ended. The treaties recognized the sovereignty of over three hundred German princes, which largely reduced the power of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Hapsburgs, though the Empire did continue to exist as a federation. The treaties also acknowledged the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, gave the Swedish jurisdiction over German territories allong the Baltic Sea, and denied the papacy the right to participate in German religious affairs.
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