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26 Sep 2017
26 Sep 2017
The Light on Abd-Allah's face disappeared after visiting his wife, and Muhammad was born
Amina dies, leaving Muhammad as an orphan. Abd Multalib took care of Muhammad, but later died as well. Abu Talib took care of Muhammad next. They went together to see Bahira.
Muhammad (25yo) is proposed to by Khadija (40yo). They had four daughters.
During the Month of Ramadan and the Night of Power, Muhammad had his first revelation in the cave in Hira Mountain
By this time, Muhammad was known as the messenger. Aristocrats did not like this, because 1. Socio-economic reason: Islam taught equality, and they wanted to be on top. 2. Economic reason: The Pagan pilgrimmage brought a lot of trade, and Pagans would stop if Islam prevailed. 3. Theological reason: Islam said there is only 1 God (no worshipping idols)
The lower class followed Muhammad and traveled to modern-day Etheopia. Pagans sent people to convince the Etheopian king to kick the Muslims out, but the King allowed them to stay because Muslims were accepting of Christianity.
Makkans were furious and boycotted the Hashimites. Abu Talib pleaded Muhammad to compromise but he wouldn't. He fled and was rejected by many places in Makka.
Abu Talib and Khadija die, and this is known as the Year of Mourning.
Muhammad arbitrated and resolved the feud between Aws and Kazraj. Muhammad found a place in Madina for his people.
Hijra: Muhammad, his guide, and Abu Bakr escape to Madina. Makkans tried to conspire to kill Muhammad (stab by many people at the same time), but Muhammad had Ali disguise himself as Muhammad, and Muhammad was able to escape.
The first Mosque (Masjid) was built; the first islamic state was established; Muhammad is the first head of the islamic state
Battle of Badr: During the Month of Ramadan, a Makkan caravan was passing by Madina for rest, and the Muslims wanted to close the water wells (Muslims won)
Battle of Uhud: Makkans came back and defeated the Muslims
Battle of Khandaq (trenches): Makkans try to attack Muslims again, but are forced to retreat due to the trenches Muhammad and the Muslims dug.
Treaty of Al-Hudaibiyya: Muhammad went to Makka and negotiated a treaty. The treaty \allowed Muhammad to visit Makka the following year, said that the leaders of Makka would leave while he was there, and started a 10 year truce.
Muhammad went back to Makka, but while he was there, Muslims were captured and the treaty was broken.
Muhammad struck back and took Makka peacefully.
Muhammad died at 62 years old. Before he died he gave a speech in Makka saying all people are equal. The Muslims community started dividing - Abu Bakr became the first Khalifa and Ridda Wars took place
Umar became the second Khalifa. With the help of Amr Ibn al-Ass, he conquered any places and expanded the islamic state.
Umar was stabbed. Uthman became the third Khalifa, and was not a very good leader because he practiced nepotism. He expanded the islamic state to Africa, and compiled the Quron.
Uthman was assassinated by a Muslim and Ali became the fourth Khalifa. A'isha, daughter of Abu Bakr, led the battle of the Camel against Ali.
Battle of Siffin: Ali tried to appoint new governors, but Muawiya, governor of Syria, would not step down. Muawiya fake a peace statement (Quron on spears) and Ali agreed to have Abu Musa arbitrate with Amr. Amr tricked Abu Musa to denounce Ali, and Ali's troops were furious, splitting into 2 groups: Kharijites: Niether ALi nor Mu'awiya; Shi'ites: Supporters of Ali
Ali was murdered (buried in Najaf), and Mu'awiya declared himself King, and established the Umayyad Dynasty.
Ashura: Husain is killed brutally - buried in Karbala
Umar made 622 the first year of the Islamic calendar
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